The information in this profile may be out-of-date. It was last revised
in 1996. EXTOXNET no longer updates this information, but it may be useful
as a reference or resource.
Please visit the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) to find
updated pesticide fact sheets.
If you don't find a fact sheet related to
your question, feel free to call 1-800-858-7378.
NPIC is open five days
a week from 8:00am to 12:00pm Pacific Time.
E X T O X N E T
A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension
Offices of Cornell University, Oregon State University, the
University of Idaho, and the University of California at Davis
and the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State
University. Major support and funding was provided by the
USDA/Extension Service/National Agricultural Pesticide Impact
EXTOXNET primary files maintained and archived at Oregon State
Revised June 1996
Trade and Other Names:
Trade names for products containing ziram include AAprotect,
AAvolex, Antene, Attivar, Carbazinc, Corozate, Cuman, Drupine,
Fuklasin, Fungostop, Mezene, Milbam, Pomarsol Z Forte, Prodaram,
Tricarbamix, Triscabol, Z C Spray, Zerlate, Zincmate,
Zinkcarbamate, Ziram, Zirasan, Zirbeck and Zirex. The compound
may be found in formulations with other fungicides such as
bitertanol, dodine, myclobutanil, thiram, and zineb.
Ziram is a General Use Pesticide (GUP) in the U.S. Ziram is a
slightly to moderately toxic compound, EPA toxicity class III.
Ziram carries the Signal Word DANGER on its label due to eye
Ziram is an agricultural dithiocarbamate fungicide used on a wide
variety of plant fungi and diseases. It may be applied to the
foliage of plants, but it is also used as a soil and/or seed
treatment. Ziram is used primarily on almonds and stone fruits.
It is also used as an accelerator in rubber manufacturing,
packaging materials, adhesives, and textiles. Another use of the
compound is as a bird and rodent repellent. Ziram is often
marketed as a wettable powder or as granules. Granules or grains
are sifted into water and agitated prior to application.
often marketed as a wettable powder or as granules. Granules or
grains are sifted into water and agitated prior to application.
- Acute toxicity: Acute exposure among
industrial and farm workers in the former U.S.S.R. caused
irritation of the skin, nose, eyes, and throat . The
oral LD50 for ziram is 1400 mg/kg in rats and 480 and 400
mg/kg in mice and rabbits, respectively. Ziram has an
LD50 of 100 to 150 mg/kg in guinea pigs . The acute
dermal LD50 in rats is greater than 6000 mg/kg. Ziram is
corrosive to eyes and may cause irreversible eye damage
- Chronic toxicity: Female rats
administered relatively small doses of ziram in their
diets (2.5 mg/kg/day) for 9 months showed decreased
antibody formation. Rats fed doses of 1 to 2 mg/kg/day
ziram for an unknown time period exhibited poor growth
and development . In a 1-year feeding study with
rats, no effects were seen at the low dose of 5
mg/kg/day, nor were any effects seen in weanlings
receiving 5 mg/kg/day in their diet for 30 days . A
study with dogs fed ziram in their diets showed no
harmful effects after 12 months at 5 mg/kg/day .
- Reproductive effects: When female and
male rats were given moderate doses of ziram (50
mg/kg/day) for nearly 2 months prior to pregnancy, the
rats had marked reductions in fertility and litter size.
The rats in this study became largely sterile. A lower
dose of 10 mg/kg had no effect on reproduction [1,44].
Female mice fed moderate doses (50 mg/kg/day) of ziram
for 15 days exhibited reduced fertility but no effects on
fertility appeared in male mice . Wasting away of the
testes has been noted as a toxic effect of ziram .
Based on these data, reproductive effects in humans are
unlikely at normal levels of exposure.
- Teratogenic effects: Pregnant rats
administered ziram at doses of 12.5 to 100 mg/kg/day
during the organ forming period of pregnancy showed
embryotoxic effects at doses of 25 mg/kg/day and greater.
The compound also had a slight growth inhibiting effect
on the embryos at 100 mg/kg. Maternal toxicity was
observed at all test levels . No teratogenic effects
- Mutagenic effects: Numerous tests have
established that ziram is mutagenic. For example, there
was an increase in the number of chromosome changes in
bone marrow cells in mice treated with oral doses of 100
mg/kg/day . Chromosomal changes have also been
observed in workers exposed to the compound in industrial
settings for 3 to 5 years . The concentration in the
air averaged 1.95 mg/L but reached as high as 71.3 mg/L
in some of these cases. Thus, there is a risk to humans
chronically exposed to ziram at moderate to high
- Carcinogenic effects: A carcinogenicity
study was performed on rats and mice exposed to ziram for
a 103-week period. Under the conditions of the study,
ziram was carcinogenic to male rats, causing an increase
in thyroid cancer. There was no increase in
carcinogenicity in female rats or in male mice. Female
mice showed an increase in lung tumors, but this was
complicated by a virus infection making interpretation
difficult . Ziram's carcinogenicity is not
determinable from current evidence.
- Organ toxicity: The primary target organ
is the thyroid, as shown in a study of workers who
experienced thyroid enlargement after ziram exposure
- Fate in humans and animals: Ziram is
poorly absorbed in the absence of oils. However, it may
be readily absorbed into the body in the presence of oil,
including through the skin. Rats that had been fed low
doses (30 mg/kg/day) of the compound for 2 years had very
low levels in their livers (0.03 mg). However, the zinc
component of the parent compound is stored in the body to
a slightly higher degree. The amount of zinc in bone was
related to the dose over a 2-year experiment. Female rats
had some water soluble residues in blood, kidneys, liver,
ovaries, spleen, and thyroid 24 hours following a single
oral dose . Ziram that had remained unchanged in the
rat was excreted in the feces . This indicates that,
though ziram has only a slight potential to persist and
concentrate in living tissue, the compound may be
selectively localized in the body, as are other
dithiocarbamates, at sites where toxicity may occur. The
highest concentrations of zinc after ziram exposure are
found in the male reproductive system and specifically in
the prostate. High concentrations also are found in bone,
liver, kidney, pancreas, and endocrine glands. Rats that
were fed low doses of ziram followed by ethyl alcohol had
higher alcohol levels in their bloodstream over a 4-hour
- Effects on birds: Toxicity of ziram to
birds will vary from essentially non-toxic to moderately
toxic. Its LD50 is 100 mg/kg in European starlings and
red-wing blackbirds. In a 2-year study, the dietary LC50
in quail was 3346 ppm . In chickens, doses of 56
mg/kg were toxic . Ziram has an antifertility action
in laying hens. When given to chickens under unspecified
conditions, there were adverse effects on body weight and
retarded testicular development .
- Effects on aquatic organisms: Based on
data from only one species, the goldfish, the compound
appears to be moderately toxic to fish. The 5-hour LC50
for ziram in goldfish was between 5 and 10 mg/L .
Based on its low solubility in water, ziram should have a
low bioconcentration potential .
- Effects on other organisms: No data are
- Breakdown in soil and groundwater: Ziram
has not been detected in groundwater . In soils with
medium to high content of soil organic matter, ziram will
be moderately bound. A field half-life of 30 days has
been estimated for ziram , indicating a low to
- Breakdown in water: Of the metallic
dithiocarbamate fungicides, ziram is the most stable.
Because the compound is toxic to bacteria, biodegradation
in sediment may be rather slow, or occur only at very low
concentrations. If ziram gets to the bottom of bodies of
water, it may persist for months .
- Breakdown in vegetation: On plants,
persistent breakdown products were formed. A significant
amount of carbon disulfide was released during the
breakdown process. The leaf surface was slightly acidic,
probably due to dissolved carbon dioxide .
- Appearance: Ziram is an odorless powder
at room temperature .
- Chemical Name: zinc
- CAS Number: 137-30-4
- Molecular Weight: 305.83
- Water Solubility: 65 mg/L 
- Solubility in Other Solvents: s. in
alcohol, acetone, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride 
- Melting Point: 240-244 C 
- Vapor Pressure: Negligible at room
- Partition Coefficient: Not Available
- Adsorption Coefficient: 400 (estimated)
- ADI: 0.02 mg/kg/day 
- MCL: Not Available
- RfD: Not Available
- PEL: Not Available
- HA: Not Available
- TLV: Not Available
Agricultural Chemicals Group
1735 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103
- Phone: 215-299-6565
- Emergency: 800-331-3148
References for the information in this PIP can be found in
Reference List Number 4
information in this profile does not in any way replace or
supersede the information on the pesticide product labeling or
other regulatory requirements. Please refer to the pesticide