The information in this profile may be out-of-date. It was last revised
in 1996. EXTOXNET no longer updates this information, but it may be useful
as a reference or resource.
Please visit the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) to find
updated pesticide fact sheets.
If you don't find a fact sheet related to
your question, feel free to call 1-800-858-7378.
NPIC is open five days
a week from 8:00am to 12:00pm Pacific Time.
E X T O X N E T
Extension Toxicology Network
Pesticide Information Profiles
A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of Cornell University, Oregon State University, the
University of Idaho, and the University of California at Davis and the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan
State University. Major support and funding was provided by the USDA/Extension Service/National Agricultural Pesticide
Impact Assessment Program.
EXTOXNET primary files maintained and archived at Oregon State University
TRADE OR OTHER NAMES: Streptomycin is also called streptomycine, streptomycin sulfate or streptomycin nitrate.
Trade names include Agri-mycin-17, Plantomycin; Agrept, Rimosidin, and AS-50 (1, 207).
REGULATORY STATUS: Streptomycin is a General Use Pesticide (GUP) registered for use on fruits and vegetables. It
may also be used on nonfood crops such as tobacco and greenhouse ornamentals (351).
INTRODUCTION: Streptomycin is a human antibiotic drug which also is used to control bacteria, fungi, and algae in
crops. It is an aminoglycoside with systemic action that is used on fruits, vegetables, tobacco, ornamentals, and in ponds and
aquaria (207, 351). It controls a number of commercially important bacterial plant pathogens including fireblight of pear and
apple, walnut blight, tomato canker, bacterial canker, angular leaf blight, and others. Gram positive species of bacteria are
much more susceptible to its action than gram negative species (223). The EPA has classified it as Toxicity class IV-
relatively non-toxic. Products containing streptomycin bear the Signal Word "Caution" because of its potential to cause skin
reactions. It is available as a water soluble powder, pellets or emulsifiable concentrate (351).
- Acute Toxicity: Streptomycin is practically non-toxic. The dose which kills half of the test animals, the LD50, is 9,000
mg/kg for rats and greater than 10,000 mg/kg for mice (1, 223). Streptomycin may cause mild skin irritation or allergic
skin reactions. Sensitive patients have shown reactions including rash, hives, headache, drop in blood pressure, nausea,
and vomiting (353).
- Chronic Toxicity: No information currently available.
- Reproductive Effects: No information currently available.
- Teratogenic Effects: Rabbits dosed with 5 or 10 mg/kg/day of streptomycin showed no teratogenic effects (352).
- Mutagenic Effects: No information currently available.
- Carcinogenic Effects: No information currently available.
- Organ Toxicity: Studies have shown that streptomycin can cause ear damage which is greatest in people exposed for
four weeks or more (352, 346). Exposure to aminoglycosides such as streptomycin can result in kidney damage. In rare
cases, streptomycin can cause paralysis by interfering with calcium transport in the nervous system (346).
- Fate in Humans and Animals: Topical application or aerosol delivery of aminoglycosides results in minimal absorption.
Aminoglycosides are not metabolized by the body. The compound concentrates in the kidney and can be detected in
human urine for up to 10 days after a week-long dosing schedule. The time it takes for individuals to eliminate
aminoglycosides depends on their kidney function (346).
- Effects on Birds: Streptomycin is practically non-toxic to birds (353).
- Effects on Aquatic Organisms: Streptomycin is practically non-toxic to fresh water invertebrates. It is slightly toxic to
warm and cold water species of fish. It is very toxic to algae and is used to control algae in ponds and aquaria (353).
- Effects on Other Animals (Nontarget species): Streptomycin is used as an antibacterial agent for cats (225). Dogs
which consume streptomycin develop resistance to the compound in the intestinal microorganisms (352).
- Breakdown of Chemical in Soil and Groundwater: No information currently available.
- Breakdown of Chemical in Water: No information currently available.
- Breakdown of Chemical in Vegetation: Residues of streptomycin are not detectable in or on crops when treated
according to label use rates and directions (351). Streptomycin may cause chlorosis to corn, grapes, pears, peaches, and
certain ornamentals (207).
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND GUIDELINES
Streptomycin is an off-white powder derived from Streptomyces griseus bacteria (223). It is odorless and has a slightly
bitter taste. The salt forms are hygroscopic but are not affected by exposure to light or air (225). Neutral solutions of
streptomycin are stable for weeks at temperatures below 25 degrees C. Streptomycin is more active at an alkaline pH (347).
It is unstable in strong acids and alkalis. It is incompatible with alkaline materials (1).
- Appearance: Off-white Powder
- Chemical Name: O-2-deoxy-2-methylamino-A-L-glucopyranosyl-(1 - 2)-O-5-deoxy
- CAS Number: 57-92-1, [3810-74-0 Streptomycin sulfate]
- Molecular Weight: 581.6
- Water Solubility: greater than 20 mg/ml (225)
- Solubility in Other Solvents: Insoluble in ethanol, isopropanol, ether, and carbon tetrachloride (225, 347)
- Melting Point: Not Available
- Vapor Pressure: Not Available
- Partition Coefficient: Not Available
- Adsorption Coefficient: Not Available
- ADI: 0.05 mg/kg (352)
- MCL: Not Available
- RfD: Not Available
- PEL: Not Available
- HA: Not Available
- TLV: Not Available
640 N. 13th St.
Easton, PA 18042
Merck & Co., Inc.
P.O. Box 450
Three Bridges, NJ 08887-0450
References for the information in this PIP can be found in Reference List Number 10
DISCLAIMER: The information in this profile does not in any way replace or supersede the information on the pesticide
product label/ing or other regulatory requirements. Please refer to the pesticide product label/ing.