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E X T O X N E T
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Pesticide Information Profiles
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University of Idaho, and the University of California at Davis and the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan
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TRADE OR OTHER NAMES: Trade names for products containing scilliroside include Silmine, Silmurin, Red Squill,
Rodine, Topzol Rat Baits and Killing Syrup, Rat-o-Cide, and Rodene.
REGULATORY STATUS: Scilliroside production was discontinued worldwide in 1980. It was a Restricted Use
Pesticide. It was registered in the U.S. for control of the Norway rat (223).
INTRODUCTION: Scilliroside is a rodenticide in the glycoside family of chemicals (227). It is a botanical compound
extracted from the bulb of the Mediterranean squill plant (309). Most effective against Norway rats, it was also used to
control black rats, house mice, long-tailed field mice, and field voles (345). The EPA classified it as Toxicity Class I- highly
toxic. Products containing scilliroside bore the Signal Word "Caution" (223). It was available as a ready-to-use bait or as
- Acute Toxicity: Scilliroside is a highly toxic chemical. The dose at which half of the test animals die, the oral LD50, is
0.43 mg/kg for female rats, 0.7 mg/kg for male rats, and 0.35 mg/kg for mice (223, 31). Pigs and cats survived doses of
16 mg/kg (223). Scilliroside is irritating to the skin (345). Scilliroside affects heart muscle contractions. It is also a potent
emetic in most mammals, causing them to vomit and avoid absorbing the toxin. It is specifically toxic to continuous
feeders like rats because of their inability to vomit. Rats are relatively resistant to the cardiac actions of scilliroside.
Instead, they show protracted convulsions and muscular weakness at doses of 1.5-2.0 mg/kg intraveneously. Cardiac
glycosides, like scilliroside, may also cause nausea, vomiting, headache, abdominal pain, confusion or convulsions.
- Chronic Toxicity: No information currently available.
- Reproductive Effects: Newborn and young infant heart muscles are less susceptible than adults to the effects of cardiac
glycosides such as scilliroside (346).
- Teratogenic Effects: No information currently available.
- Mutagenic Effects: No information currently available.
- Carcinogenic Effects: No information currently available.
- Organ Toxicity: Scilliroside is a cardiac glycoside, so it can cause abnormal hearbeat rhythms. It may also affect the
nervous system and secretory organs (346).
- Fate in Humans and Animals: Cardiac glycosides, such as scilliroside, are metabolized by the liver, excreted into the
intestine and then absorbed into the blood. Intestinal flora may also play a role in metabolism, causing large variations in
fate among exposed individuals. It may also be eliminated, unmetabolized by the kidney. The half-life in the body is from
five to six days (346).
- Effects on Birds: Scilliroside is moderately toxic to some birds. Fowl survive doses of 400 mg/kg/day (223). Certain
birds learn to avoid insects contaminated with scilliroside because of its strong emetic characteristic (347).
- Effects on Aquatic Organisms: No information currently available.
- Effects on Other Animals (Nontarget species): Scilliroside is not toxic to many mammal species because of its strong
emetic characteristic (223).
- Breakdown of Chemical in Soil and Groundwater: No information currently available.
- Breakdown of Chemical in Surface Water: No information currently available.
- Breakdown of Chemical in Vegetation: No information currently available.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND GUIDELINES
Scilliroside is sensitive to heat and should be used at temperatures below 80 degrees C. Its shelf life is one to five years if it
is protected from strong light and low pH conditions (347).
- Appearance: Scilliroside is a bright yellow crystalline solid. It is hydroscopic and non-corrosive (1).
- Chemical Name: 3B, 6-B-6-acetyloxy-3-(Beta-D-Gluco-pyranosyloxy)-8,14-dihydroxybufa-4,20,22-trienolide
- CAS Number: 507-60-8
- Molecular Weight: 620.69
- Water Solubility: Not Available
- Solubility in Other Solvents: alcohols, ethylene gylcol, dioxane, and glacial acetic acid. Practically insoluble in diethyl
ether and petroleum ether
- Melting Point: 168-170 degrees C
- Vapor Pressure: Not Available
- Partition Coefficient: Not Available
- Adsorption Coefficient: Not Available
- ADI: Not Available
- MCL: Not Available
- RfD: Not Available
- PEL: Not Available
- HA: Not Available
- TLV: Not Available
Scilliroside is no longer produced.
References for the information in this PIP can be found in Reference List Number 10
DISCLAIMER: The information in this profile does not in any way replace or supersede the information on the pesticide
product label/ing or other regulatory requirements. Please refer to the pesticide product label/ing.