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in 1996. EXTOXNET no longer updates this information, but it may be useful
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E X T O X N E T
A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension
Offices of Cornell University, Oregon State University, the
University of Idaho, and the University of California at Davis
and the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State
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USDA/Extension Service/National Agricultural Pesticide Impact
EXTOXNET primary files maintained and archived at Oregon State
Revised June 1996
Trade and Other Names:
Trade names include G-30028, Geigy 30028, Gesamil, Milocep,
Milogard, Milo-Pro, Plantulin, Primatol P, Propazin, Propinex,
Propazine is classified as a slightly toxic compound in EPA
toxicity class III and as a General Use Pesticide (GUP). Labels
for products containing propazine must bear the Signal Word
Propazine is an herbicide used for control of broadleaf weeds and
annual grasses in sweet sorghum. It is applied as a spray at the
time of planting or immediately following planting, but prior to
weed or sorghum emergence. It is also used as a postemergence
selective herbicide on carrots, celery and fennel. Propazine is
available in wettable powder, liquid, and water dispersible
is available in wettable powder, liquid, and water dispersible
- Acute toxicity: Propazine is slightly
toxic by ingestion with reported oral LD50 values of 3840
mg/kg to greater than 7000 mg/kg in rats, 3180 mg/kg in
mice, and 1200 mg/kg in guinea pigs [6,15]. It is
slightly toxic dermally; slight irritation was noted
after propazine was applied to the skin of rabbits .
Its dermal LD50 in rats is 10,200 mg/kg, and in rabbits
is greater than 2000 mg/kg . Eye applications of 400
mg caused mild eye irritation in these animals . The
inhalation LC50 is greater than 2.04 mg/L , indicating
slight toxicity by this route as well. Symptoms of
exposure may include dizziness, lethargy, muscular
weakness, runny nose, emaciation, diarrhea, labored
breathing, and irregular breathing . It may be mildly
irritating to the skin, eyes, and upper respiratory
tract. Contact dermatitis has been reported among workers
manufacturing propazine .
- Chronic toxicity: When given daily to
rabbits for 1 to 4 months, oral doses of 500 mg/kg/day
propazine were reported to cause a type of anemia . No
gross signs of toxicity or pathologic changes were
evident in rats that received daily doses of 250 mg/kg of
propazine for 130 consecutive days . No clinical or
physical toxic symptoms were observed in beagle dogs fed
1.25, 5, or 25 mg/kg/day of a propazine formulation in
90-day feeding studies .
- Reproductive effects: There was an
increase in the number of deaths of newborns born to
female rats that were given 5 mg/kg/day of propazine
during 18 days of pregnancy . In a three-generation
study with rats fed 0.15, 5, or 50 mg/kg/day, no effects
on fertility, length of pregnancy, pup viability or pup
survival were observed . The data regarding
reproductive effects are inconclusive.
- Teratogenic effects: Maternal doses of
500 mg/kg/day resulted in maternal toxicity and
developmental toxicity expressed as increased incidence
of extra ribs, incomplete bone formation, and decreased
fetal body weights in rats . At 50 mg/kg/day, pup
body weights on day 21 of lactation were reduced, and
there were pathological changes in organ weights in the
second and third generation . These data suggest that
teratogenic effects due to propazine are not likely
unless the level of exposure is high.
- Mutagenic effects: Propazine has shown
no mutagenic effects in tests conducted on human and rat
liver cells and in live hamsters .
- Carcinogenic effects: No evidence of
increased tumor frequency was detected in a 2-year study
in mice fed doses up to 450 mg/kg/day of propazine .
When rats were fed 0.15, 5, or 50 mg/kg of propazine each
day for 2 years, there was an increase in the incidence
of mammary gland tumors at the highest dose level .
The data regarding carcinogenicity are inconclusive.
- Organ toxicity: Liver damage is one of
the suspected effects of propazine . The functioning
of certain liver processes was decreased in rats which
were given 2500 mg/kg/day propazine .
- Fate in humans and animals: Propazine is
readily absorbed and metabolized in the body . At 72
hours after administration of single oral doses of
propazine to rats, 66% of the dose was excreted in the
urine and 23% was excreted in the feces . This study
also indicated that 77% of the dose was absorbed into the
bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract. At 8 days
after the dosing, propazine or its metabolites were
detected in the rats' lungs, spleen, heart, kidneys, and
- Effects on birds: Propazine is
practically nontoxic to slightly toxic to birds; the
8-day dietary LC50 is greater than 10,000 ppm in both
bobwhite quail and mallard ducks .
- Effects on aquatic organisms: Propazine
is slightly toxic to fish; the 96-hour LC50 is 18 mg/L in
rainbow trout, greater than 100 mg/L in bluegill sunfish,
and greater than 32 mg/L in goldfish .
- Effects on other organisms: Propazine is
practically nontoxic to bees .
- Breakdown in soil and groundwater:
Propazine is highly persistent in the soil environment,
with reported field half-lives ranging from 35 to 231
days . It is broken down mainly by microbial action,
and therefore will persist longer in dry, cold conditions
or other conditions which inhibit microbial activity
. Photolysis and volatilization are not important
factors in propazine degradation . It is slightly
soluble in water and is poorly bound by soils. One study
found propazine to be mobile in sandy loam, loam, and
clay loam soils. It was very mobile in loamy sand .
It may contaminate groundwater, especially in areas with
low organic matter and clay content, high rainfall, or
irrigation rates, porous soils, and with excessive
application. In 15 out of 906 groundwater samples
collected from eight states, propazine was detectable.
The maximum concentration found in any sample was 0.013
- Breakdown in water: Propazine is
resistant to breakdown by hydrolysis. After 28 days at pH
5, 60% of applied propazine remained unhydrolyzed; at pH
7, 92% remained; and at pH 9, 100% remained . It has
been found in 33 out of 1097 surface water samples at
levels below 0.3 mg/L [9,45].
- Breakdown in vegetation: Propazine is
absorbed principally through plant roots, and
translocated to growing shoots (meristems) and leaves of
plants . Propazine accumulates and inhibits cell
reproduction of the growth regions (meristems) in those
plants that are unable to readily metabolize it, but in
tolerant species it is readily transformed via hydrolysis
and ring cleavage .
- Appearance: Propazine is a colorless
crystalline solid under normal circumstances .
- Chemical Name:
- CAS Number: 139-40-2
- Molecular Weight: 229.70
- Water Solubility: 5 mg/L @ 20 C 
- Solubility in Other Solvents: difficult
to dissolve in organic solvents: in benzene, toluene,
carbon tetrachloride, and diethyl ether 
- Melting Point: 212-214 C 
- Vapor Pressure: 0.004 mPa @ 20 C 
- Partition Coefficient: Not Available
- Adsorption Coefficient: 154 
- ADI: Not Available
- MCL: Not Available
- RfD: 0.02 mg/kg/day 
- PEL: Not Available
- HA: 0.01 mg/L (lifetime) 
- TLV: Not Available
P.O. Box 18300
Greensboro, NC 27419-8300
- Phone: 800-334-9481
- Emergency: 800-888-8372
References for the information in this PIP can be found in
Reference List Number 8
information in this profile does not in any way replace or
supersede the information on the pesticide product labeling or
other regulatory requirements. Please refer to the pesticide