The information in this profile may be out-of-date. It was last revised
in 1996. EXTOXNET no longer updates this information, but it may be useful
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E X T O X N E T
A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension
Offices of Cornell University, Oregon State University, the
University of Idaho, and the University of California at Davis
and the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State
University. Major support and funding was provided by the
USDA/Extension Service/National Agricultural Pesticide Impact
EXTOXNET primary files maintained and archived at Oregon State
Revised June 1996
Trade and Other Names:
Trade names include Arrosol, Bay 30130, Cekupropanil, Chem-Rice,
DPA, DCPA, Dropaven, Erban, FW-734, Herbax, Prop-Job, Propanex,
Propanilo, Riselect, S 10145, Stam, Stam 80 EDF, Stam M-4,
Stampede, Strel, Supernox, Surcopur, Surpur, Vertac, Wham DF, and
Propanil is a General Use Pesticide (GUP). Propanil is in
toxicity class II - moderately toxic, due to its potential to
irritate eyes and skin. Products containing propanil bear the
Signal Word WARNING.
Propanil is an acetanilide post-emergence herbicide with no
residual effect. It is used against numerous grasses and
broad-leaved weeds in rice, potatoes, and wheat. It is available
as emulsifiable concentrates, liquid and dry flowable, low
volume, and ultra low volume (ULV) formulations. Mixing with
carbamates or organophosphorans compounds is not recommended. The
information presented here, unless otherwise noted, pertains to
Formulation: It is
available as emulsifiable concentrates, liquid and dry flowable,
low volume, and ultra low volume (ULV) formulations.
- Acute toxicity: Propanil is moderately
toxic via ingestion. The reported rat oral LD50 values
for technical propanil range from 1080 mg/kg to greater
than 2500 mg/kg [8,58]; and for formulations range from
500 to greater than 5000 mg/kg . The oral LD50 is
1217 mg/kg for technical propanil in dogs . Technical
propanil is practically nontoxic via the dermal route,
with a reported LD50 of greater than 5000 mg/kg (58) in
rabbits. The LD50 in rats suggests slight dermal toxicity
(less than 2000 mg/kg) for one formulated product,
Propanil 4 . However, the reported LD50 values in
rats and rabbits indicate moderate to practically no
dermal toxicity (greater than 2000 mg/kg) for four other
formulated products: Wham DF, Wham EZ, Stam 80 EDF, and
Stam M-4 . Technical propanil is moderately toxic via
the inhalation route, with a reported 4-hour LC50 of 1.12
mg/L [8,58]. The formulated products may be less toxic,
with inhalation 4-hour LC50 values of 2.8 mg/L for Stam
M-4 and 6.1 mg/L for Stam 80 EDF .
- Chronic toxicity: In a 2-year study, a
dietary level of about 80 mg/kg/day caused a decrease in
overall growth and a relative increase in the weight of
the spleen and liver in female rats and of the testes in
males . Feed consumption, growth, and hemoglobin
levels in rats were reduced at daily doses of about 180
mg/kg/day over 3 weeks . In a 2-year study in dogs, a
dietary level of about 85 mg/kg/day depressed growth in
spite of increased food intake and increased relative
liver weight . The only other change detected was a
slight increase in the relative weight of the heart .
Liver and blood changes and cyanosis was seen at 25
mg/kg/day in mice over 90 days .
- Reproductive effects: In a
three-generation study, male and female rats fed doses as
high as 50 mg/kg/day of propanil for 11 weeks before
mating showed no effect on fertility, gestation,
viability, or lactation . It appears that propanil
does not cause reproductive effects.
- Teratogenic effects: No evidence of
teratogenic effects was observed in studies with rats and
- Mutagenic effects: In vitro tests of
propanil, including the Ames test (with and without
metabolic activation), tests on mammalian cell cultures,
and cytogenetic assays on mice, failed to show mutagenic
or genotoxic effects [58,125].
- Carcinogenic effects: No evidence of
carcinogenicity was observed in long-term studies of mice
and rats .
- Organ toxicity: Data from animal studies
indicate that the most likely target organs are the
liver, kidney, spleen, and possibly testes .
Dermatitis (rashes) and sensitization (allergies) are
possible. High doses may produce anemia due to the
formation of methemoglobin .
- Fate in humans and animals: When
propanil was fed to a cow for 4 days, 1.4% of the total
dose was recovered in the feces, but none was detected in
the urine or milk . This suggests that propanil is
absorbed into the bloodstream through the
gastrointestinal tract and that, once in the bloodstream,
propanil is metabolized by the body. Propanil is lipid
(fat) soluble. The liver breaks down propanil to aniline
derivatives. These metabolites are responsible for the
methemoglobin formation . Excretion is through the
- Effects on birds: Propanil is moderately
toxic to birds. The oral LD50 for propanil in bobwhite
quail is 196 mg/kg, and in mallard ducks is 275 mg/kg
. The 8-day dietary LC50 for propanil in bobwhite
quail is 2861 ppm, and in mallard ducks is 5627 ppm .
- Effects on aquatic organisms: Propanil
may be moderately to highly toxic to a wide range of
aquatic species . The 96-hour LC50 for propanil is
5.4 mg/L in bluegill sunfish, 2.3 mg/L in rainbow trout,
and 4.6 mg/L in sheepshead minnows . The 48-hour LC50
for propanil in Daphnia magna, a small freshwater
crustacean, is 0.14 mg/L, and for mysid shrimp is 0.4
mg/L . The 96-hour LC50 of propanil is 5.8 mg/L in
the Eastern oyster . The compound concentrated to
levels up to 111 times the background water concentration
in fathead minnows. The level of pesticide in the minnows
returned to normal within 10 days after the fish were
placed in a propanil-free enviroment. This indicates that
the compound is not likely to concentrate appreciably in
- Effects on other organisms: Propanil is
nontoxic to honeybees, with a reported contact LC50 of
240 ug/bee .
- Breakdown in soil and groundwater:
Propanil is of low soil persistence [58,11]. The field
half-life is 1 to 3 days [58,11]. Propanil is soluble in
water and it adsorbs only weakly to soil particles.
Propanil is rapidly broken down in the soil by
microorganisms, which have highest activity under warm,
moist conditions. Bacteria produce by-products such as
tetrachloroazobenzene and dichloroaniline . Its rapid
breakdown in soil practically eliminates the potential
for groundwater contamination .
- Breakdown in water: Propanil will
rapidly break down in water due to microbial activity,
the major breakdown pathway. Reported half-lives are 2
days under aerobic conditions and 2 to 3 days under
anaerobic conditions .
- Breakdown in vegetation: Within a plant,
propanil is moved from the leaves to the growing shoots,
then back to other leaves. It is a contact herbicide.
Resistant crop plants such as rice completely metabolize
propanil . Carry over of herbicidal activity to
subsequent crops is not likely. Propanil may be highly
phytotoxic to non-target plants if mixed with carbamates
or organophosphates .
- Appearance: The technical product is
brownish, crystalline solid with an organic acid odor
. It is stable in emulsion concentrates, but is
hydrolyzed in extremely acid or basic conditions .
- Chemical Name:
- CAS Number: 709-98-8
- Molecular Weight: 218.08
- Water Solubility: 225 mg/L @ 25 C 
- Solubility in Other Solvents: v.s in
benzene, ethanol, acetone, and cyclohexanone; s. in
toluene and xylene 
- Melting Point: 81-91 C (technical) 
- Vapor Pressure: 12 mPa @ 60 C 
- Partition Coefficient: 2.2856 
- Adsorption Coefficient: 149 
- ADI: Not Available
- MCL: Not Available
- RfD: 0.005 mg/kg/day 
- PEL: Not Available
- HA: Not Available
- TLV: Not Available
Rohm and Haas Co.
100 Independence Mall West
Philadelphia, PA 19106
- Phone: 215-592-3000
- Emergency: Not Available
References for the information in this PIP can be found in
Reference List Number 10
information in this profile does not in any way replace or
supersede the information on the pesticide product labeling or
other regulatory requirements. Please refer to the pesticide