The information in this profile may be out-of-date. It was last revised
in 1996. EXTOXNET no longer updates this information, but it may be useful
as a reference or resource.
Please visit the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) to find
updated pesticide fact sheets.
If you don't find a fact sheet related to
your question, feel free to call 1-800-858-7378.
NPIC is open five days
a week from 7:30am to 3:30pm Pacific Time.
E X T O X N E T
A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension
Offices of Cornell University, Oregon State University, the
University of Idaho, and the University of California at Davis
and the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State
University. Major support and funding was provided by the
USDA/Extension Service/National Agricultural Pesticide Impact
EXTOXNET primary files maintained and archived at Oregon State
Revised June 1996
Trade and Other Names:
Trade names include Goal, Koltar and RH-2915.
Oxyfluorfen is a slightly to practically non-toxic compound in
EPA toxicity class III . Products containing oxyfluorfen must
bear the Signal Word WARNING on the label because some formulated
products may have higher toxicities. It is a General Use
Chemical Class: Not
Oxyfluorfen is a selective pre- and post-emergent herbicide used
to control certain annual broadleaf and grassy weeds in
vegetables, fruit, cotton, ornamentals, and on non-crop areas
(e.g. rail- and highway right-of-ways). It is a contact herbicide
and light is required for it to affect target plants. It is
available in emulsifiable concentrate and granular formulations.
Formulation: It is
available in emulsifiable concentrate and granular formulations.
- Acute toxicity: Oxyfluorfen is
practically nontoxic by ingestion, with reported oral
LD50 values of 5000 mg/kg in both rats and dogs, and 2700
to 5000 mg/kg in mice [1,58]. The dermal LD50 is greater
than 5000 mg/kg in both rats and rabbits, also indicating
slight toxicity by this route . It causes no skin
irritation in rabbits, no skin sensitization in guinea
pigs, and moderate eye irritation in rabbits .
However, Goal and other formulations may show severe skin
and eye irritant properties, and may be skin sensitizers
. The 4-hour inhalation LC50 for the technical
product is not available, but that for Goal 1.6E is
greater than 22.64 mg/L, indicating practically no
toxicity via this route .
- Chronic toxicity: Effects on the liver
have been observed in long-term feeding studies with
rats, mice, and dogs [56,108].
- Reproductive effects: In a developmental
study with rats given doses of 10, 100, or 1000 mg/kg/day
by gavage, decreased implantation, increased resorption,
and lower fetal survival was seen at the 1000 mg/kg
level. Toxic effects on the mothers were also seen at
this dose . At 5 mg/kg/day, there was decreased
survival of fetuses and decreased maternal and fetal
weights . It does not appear likely that oxyfluorfen
will cause reproductive effects in humans at likely
levels of exposure.
- Teratogenic effects: In a developmental
study with rabbits, 30 mg/kg/day, the highest dose
tested, produced an increase in fused sternal bones in
the fetuses as well as toxic effects on the mothers
. These data suggest oxyflurofen may have
teratogenic effects, but only at very high doses.
- Mutagenic effects: Mutagenicity tests on
rats, mice and on bacterial cell cultures have produced
mixed results. However, unscheduled DNA synthesis assays
have been negative [58,108]. Due to the conflicting
results, it is not possible to determine the mutagenic
potential of oxyfluorfen.
- Carcinogenic effects: In a 20-month
study with mice fed 0.3, 3, or 30 mg/kg/day, doses at and
above 3 mg/kg/day produced non-significant increases in
both benign and malignant liver tumors in male mice
[58,108]. No increased tumor formation was seen in female
mice at any dose [58,108]. No carcinogenic effects were
observed in a 23-year study with rats fed doses 2
mg/kg/day, nor in dogs at doses of 3 mg/kg/day [58,108].
These data suggest that oxyfluorfen is not carcinogenic.
- Organ toxicity: The liver appears to be
the main target organ, based on long-term feeding
- Fate in humans and animals: Because
oxyfluorfen is highly hydrophobic, it may have the
potential to bioconcentrate in animal fatty tissues
- Effects on birds: Oxyfluorfen is
practically nontoxic to birds; the reported oral LD50
values are greater than 2200 mg/kg in bobwhite quail, and
greater than 4000 mg/kg in mallard duck . The
dietary 8-day dietary LC50 values are greater than 5000
ppm in bobwhite quail, and 4000 ppm in mallard ducks
[58,109]. Dietary concentrations as high as 100 ppm had
no effect on reproduction in mallards or bobwhite quail
- Effects on aquatic organisms:
Oxyfluorfen is highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates,
freshwater clams, oysters, aquatic plants, and fish. The
reported 96-hour LC50 values are 200 ug/L in bluegill
sunfish, 410 ug/L in rainbow trout, 400 ug/L in channel
catfish, 150 ug/L in fathead minnow, and 32 ug/L in grass
shrimp and oysters [58,109]. Its 96-hour LC50 in
freshwater clams is 10 ug/L. The 96-hour LC50 for the
product Goal 2E in Daphnia magna, a small freshwater
crustacean, is 1500 ug/L [58,109]. Oxyfluorfen
accumulated up to 13 mg/kg (13,000 ug/kg) in bluegill
sunfish exposed to 10 ug/L for 40 days . This
represents a bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 1300. The
BCF in channel catfish was 700 to 5000 in one 30-day
study . These results indicate a low to moderate
potential for bioaccumulation in aquatic species.
- Effects on other organisms: Oxyfluorfen
is nontoxic to honeybees, with a reported oral LC50 of
greater than 10,000 ppm .
- Breakdown in soil and groundwater:
Oxyfluorfen is moderately persistent in most soil
environments, with a representative field half-life of
about 30 to 40 days [58,110]. Oxyfluorfen is not subject
to microbial degradation or hydrolysis [58,11]. The main
mechanism of degradation in soils may be photodegradation
and evaporation/codistillation in moist soils [58,110].
In laboratory studies, its soil half-life was 6 months,
indicating very low rates of microbial degradation
[58,11]. Oxyfluorfen is very well-sorbed to most soils
. Soil binding is highest in soils with high organic
matter and clay content [58,11]. Once oxyfluorfen is
adsorbed to soil particles, it is not readily removed
. It is practically insoluble in water, and therefore
is unlikely to be appreciably mobile in most instances,
unless the sorptive capacity of the soil is exceeded.
Oxyfluorfen did not leach below 4 inches in any soil
except sand .
- Breakdown in water: In water,
oxyfluorfen is rapidly decomposed by light . Because
oxyfluorfen is nearly insoluble in water and has a
tendency to adsorb to soil, it will be sorbed to
suspended particles or sediments [58,109].
- Breakdown in vegetation: There is very
little movement of oxyfluorfen within treated plants. It
is not readily metabolized by plants, but since it is not
readily taken up by roots, residues in plants are
generally very low . Residues of oxyfluorfen
accumulated in carrots and oats grown on previously
treated fields, but not in cotton or lettuce .
- Appearance: Oxyfluorfen is a white to
orange or red-brown crystalline solid with a smoke-like
- Chemical Name:
3-ethoxy-4-nitrophrnyl ether 
- CAS Number: 42874-03-3
- Molecular Weight: 361.70
- Water Solubility: 0.1 mg/L 
- Solubility in Other Solvents: v.s. in
most organic solvents (e.g acetone, cyclohexanone,
isophorone ) 
- Melting Point: 84-85 C 
- Vapor Pressure: 0.026 mPa @ 25 C 
- Partition Coefficient: 4.4683 
- Adsorption Coefficient: 100,000
- ADI: Not Available
- MCL: Not Available
- RfD: 0.003 mg/kg/day 
- PEL: Not Available
- HA: Not Available
- TLV: Not Available
Rohm and Haas Co.
100 Independence Mall West
Philadelphia, PA 19106
- Phone: 215-592-3000
- Emergency: Not Available
References for the information in this PIP can be found in
Reference List Number 10
information in this profile does not in any way replace or
supersede the information on the pesticide product labeling or
other regulatory requirements. Please refer to the pesticide