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in 1996. EXTOXNET no longer updates this information, but it may be useful
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EXTOXNET primary files maintained and archived at Oregon State
Revised June 1996
Trade and Other Names:
Trade names include Apistan, Klartan, Mavrik, Mavrik Aqua Flow,
Spur, Taufluvalinate, and Yardex.
Fluvalinate is a moderately toxic compound in EPA toxicity class
II. Some formulations may have the capacity to cause corrosion of
the eyes. Pesticides containing fluvalinate must bear the Signal
Word DANGER on the product label. Fluvalinate is classified as a
Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP) because of its high toxicity to
fish and aquatic invertebrates. Restricted Use Pesticides may be
purchased and used only by certified applicators.
Fluvalinate is a synthetic pyrethroid which is used as a broad
spectrum insecticide against moths, beetles and other insect
pests on cotton, cereal, grape, potato, fruit tree, vegetable and
plantation crops, fleas, and turf and ornamental insects. It is
available in emulsifiable concentrates, suspensions and flowable
Formulation: It is
available in emulsifiable concentrates, suspensions, and flowable
- Acute toxicity: Fluvalinate is
moderately toxic via the oral route, with a reported LD50
in rats of 261 to 281 mg/kg [2,38]. The product Mavrik 2E
is less toxic via the oral route with a reported oral
LD50 in rats of 1050 to 1110 mg/kg . It is slightly
to practically non-toxic via the dermal route, with a
reported dermal LD50 for technical fluvalinate in rats
and rabbits of greater than 20,000 mg/kg and greater than
2000 mg/kg respectively . The dermal LD50 for Mavrik
2E in rabbits is greater than 2100 mg/kg .
Fluvalinate is moderately irritating to the eye and it is
a mild skin irritant . Fluvalinate does not cause
allergic skin reactions . Some formulated products,
including Mavrik 2E, can cause skin irritation and are
corrosive to the eyes . Some formulations of
fluvalinate are practically nontoxic via inhalation; the
reported 4-hour airborne LC50 for the formulated
emulsifiable concentrate was greater than 5.1 mg/L in
rats . Workers exposed to fluvalinate have reported
coughing, sneezing, throat irritation, itching or burning
sensations on the arms or face with or without a rash,
headache, and nausea .
- Chronic toxicity: A 90-day study with
rats fed 3 mg/kg/day and a six-month study with dogs fed
5 mg/kg/day both showed no adverse effects . In other
studies, effects observed were increased liver and kidney
weights and adverse changes in liver tissues in test
animals . No neurological effects were observed in
hens given doses of 20,000 mg/kg/day of fluvalinate for
21 days .
- Reproductive effects: A reproductive
study with rats showed no effects on offspring at 1
mg/kg. Toxic effects in fetuses occurred at 12.5 and 25
mg/kg/day, the highest doses tested . Based on these
data, it is unlikely that reproductive effects would be
seen in humans under normal circumstances.
- Teratogenic effects: No birth defects
were detected in the offspring of rats fed 50 mg/kg/day
nor in the offspring of rabbits fed 125 mg/kg/day .
Based on these data, it is unlikely that teratogenic
effects would be seen in humans.
- Mutagenic effects: Fluvalinate is not
reported to have mutagenic activity .
- Carcinogenic effects: No tumors were
observed in mice given doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day, nor
in rats given doses as high as 2.5 mg/kg/day for over 2
- Organ toxicity: Pyrethroids may cause
adverse effects on the central nervous system, liver, and
- Fate in humans and animals: The
elimination half-lives for mammals ranges from 6 to 12
hours . Following oral administration, approximately
40 to 50% is absorbed into the system, and more than 95%
of the administered fluvalinate is excreted via urine and
feces within 4 days . Thus, it has a low potential
- Effects on birds: Fluvalinate is
slightly toxic to birds. The acute oral LD50 for
fluvalinate in bobwhite quail is greater than 2510 mg/kg
. The dietary LC50 for fluvalinate in mallard ducks
and bobwhite quail is greater than 5620 ppm [12,38].
- Effects on aquatic organisms:
Fluvalinate is very highly toxic to fish. The 96-hour
LC50 for fluvalinate in bluegill sunfish is 0.9 ug/L, in
rainbow trout is 2.9 ug/L and in carp is 2.9 ug/L .
Its 48-hour LC50 in Daphnia magna, a small freshwater
crustacean, is 74 ug/L, and in mysid shrimp is 2.9 ug/L
. The bioconcentration factor for fluvalinae in whole
fish is 360 times the ambient water concentration,
indicating a low to moderate potential to accumulate in
aquatic organisms .
- Effects on other organisms: Fluvalinate
was not toxic to honeybees exposed to residues left on
cotton leaves after application of unltralow volume (ULV)
and emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulations .
- Breakdown in soil and groundwater:
Fluvalinate is of low persistence, with reported soil
half-lives of 6 to 8 days [12,25]. In sandy loam, sandy
clay and clay soils, fluvalinate degrades under aerobic
conditions with half-lives of 4 to 8 days. Under
anaerobic conditions in sandy loam, its half-life may be
15 days . Fluvalinate is nearly insoluble in water
and it has a strong tendency to bind to soil particles
. It is therefore unikely to contaminate groundwater;
however, metabolites of fluvalinate may leach [12,38].
Applications of less than 0.1 pound active ingredient per
acre will decrease the potential for groundwater
contamination . Photodegradation of fluvalinate does
not occur on soil 
- Breakdown in water: In water,
fluvalinate is subject to photodegradation with a
half-life of up to 1 day. Photodegradation yields anilino
acid and 3-phenoxy benzoic acid . Fluvalinate is
stable to hydrolysis under normal environmental
temperatures and pH . In pond waters and in
laboratory degradation studies, pyrethroid concentrations
decrease rapidly due to sorption to sediment, suspended
particles and plants. Microbial and photodegradation also
- Breakdown in vegetation: No information
- Appearance: Fluvalinate is a viscous,
yellow oil .
- Chemical Name:
- CAS Number: 102851-06-9
- Molecular Weight: 502.93
- Water Solubility: 0.002 mg/L ,
insoluble in water
- Solubility in Other Solvents: v.s. in
organic solvents and aromatic hydrocarbons; s.s in hexane
- Melting Point: Not Available
- Vapor Pressure: <0.013 mPa @ 25 C
- Partition Coefficient: 3.8451 
- Adsorption Coefficient: 1,000,000 
- ADI: Not Available
- MCL: Not Available
- RfD: 0.01 mg/kg/day 
- PEL: Not Available
- HA: Not Available
- TLV: Not Available
Sandoz Agro, Inc.
1300 E. Touhy Ave.
Des Plaines, IL 60018
- Phone: 708-699-1616
- Emergency: 708-699-1616
References for the information in this PIP can be found in
Reference List Number 2
information in this profile does not in any way replace or
supersede the information on the pesticide product labeling or
other regulatory requirements. Please refer to the pesticide