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in 1996. EXTOXNET no longer updates this information, but it may be useful
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EXTOXNET primary files maintained and archived at Oregon State
Revised June 1996
Trade and Other Names:
Trade names include Alar, Aminozide, B-995, B-Nine, Dazide, and
Kylar and SADH.
All use of daminozide on food crops was voluntarily canceled by
the manufacturer in November, 1989. It is currently registered
only for use on ornamental and bedding plants. Classified
toxicity III - slightly toxic, products containing daminozide
bear the Signal Word CAUTION.
Chemical Class: Not
Daminozide is a plant growth regulator formerly used on certain
fruit crops to improve the balance between vegetative growth and
fruit production, to improve fruit quality, and to synchronize
Unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) is a contaminant of
commercial daminozide and a metabolite of daminozide which is
formed in the body, during food processing, or when spray mixes
containing daminozide are left standing in the mixing tank.
Commercial daminozide contains 0.005% (50 mg/L) UDMH. It is
available as a water soluble powder.
Formulation: It is
available as a water soluble powder.
- Acute toxicity: Daminozide is
practically nontoxic to mammals . It may cause skin
or eye irritation . Changes in liver function have
been observed in animals given very high single doses
. The oral LD50 for daminozide is 8400 mg/kg in
rats, and 6300/mg/kg in mice. Its dermal LD50 in rabbits
is greater than 1600 mg/kg. The inhalation LC50 in
rabbits is greater than 0.15 mg/L .
- Chronic toxicity: Effects observed at
higher doses included atrophy of ovaries and enlargement
of the liver bile duct (hyperplasia) . No effects
were seen in dogs fed 7.5, 75, or 187.5 mg/kg/day
daminozide for 1 year .
- Reproductive effects: Daminozide does
not appear to affect reproduction. A three-generation
study with rats fed 300 mg/kg/day showed no significant
effects on fertility or reproductive capacity .
- Teratogenic effects: Daminozide may be
teratogenic, but only at very high doses. No birth
defects occurred in the offspring of pregnant rats fed
500 mg/kg/day . When pregnant rats were given 1800
mg/kg/day, ossification of the bones of the sternum and
spine occurred in offspring. No teratogenic or
developmental effects occurred in the offspring of
pregnant rabbits given 50, 150, or 300 mg/kg/day .
- Mutagenic effects: Several in vivo and
in vitro tests have shown that daminozide is not
- Carcinogenic effects: Both daminozide
and UDMH, a metabolite, have caused increases in the
incidence of benign and malignant tumors in test animals
at high doses . Malignant tumors were found in
female rats given dietary doses of 714 mg/kg/day and 1428
mg/kg/day . Malignant and benign blood vessel tumors
also occurred in treated UDMH mice . When rats were
given UDMH in their drinking water at concentrations of
50 or 100 mg/L for 2 years, there was a significant, but
slight, dose-related increase in liver tumors in females,
and bile duct hyperplasia and inflammation of the liver
in males receiving 100 mg/L and in females receiving 50
and 100 mg/L . Mice given UDMH in their drinking
water for 2 years at 1.3 mg/kg/day for males and 2.6
mg/kg/day for females showed a significant increase in
the incidence of lung tumors [170,171]. The data suggest
that daminozide is weakly or noncarcinogenic.
- Organ toxicity: Some animal studies have
identified the liver and lungs as target organs.
- Fate in humans and animals: At 96 hours
after administration of a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg to
miniature swine, daminozide was detected in all body
tissues at levels up to 0.073 mg/kg. The highest levels
were found in the liver and kidney. About 84% of the dose
was eliminated in the urine, and 1% of the dose was
metabolized to UDMH . The majority of daminozide
residues ingested by milk animals is rapidly excreted in
the urine and feces .
- Effects on birds: Daminozide is
practically nontoxic to birds. Its 96-hour LC50 in quail
is 5620 mg/kg . The eight-day dietary LC50 in
mallard ducks and bobwhite quail is 10,000 mg/kg .
- Effects on aquatic organisms: Daminozide
is practically nontoxic to fish. Its 96-hour LC50 in
rainbow trout is 149 to 306 mg/L, and in bluegill is 423
to 552 mg/L . The 48-hour LC50 in Daphnia, a small
freshwater crustacean, is 98.5 mg/L . Daminozide
does not bioconcentrate in fish. The concentration of
this compound in the bluegill was only 3 times the
ambient water concentration .
- Effects on other organisms: Daminozide
is of low toxicity to terrestrial wildlife; it is
nontoxic to bees .
- Breakdown in soil and groundwater:
Daminozide resists photodegradation, but it is subject to
degradation by soil microorganisms . It has a low
soil persistence. The half-life of daminozide in soil is
approximately 21 days . In field tests, 50% of
applied Alar disappeared within 1 week. Daminozide is
soluble in water and very mobile in soils . It
appears to leach, but because it does not persist in
soil, it is unlikely to contaminate groundwater .
- Breakdown in water: In water, daminozide
degrades to UDMH .
- Breakdown in vegetation: Daminozide is
rapidly absorbed through the leaves, roots, and stems of
plants. It is translocated within plants and can
accumulate in roots, fruits, and other plant parts .
- Appearance: Daminozide is a colorless to
white, stable crystalline solid .
- Chemical Name: N-dimethylaminosuccinamic
- CAS Number: 1596-84-5
- Molecular Weight: 160.20
- Water Solubility: 100,000 mg/L at 25 C
- Solubility in Other Solvents: v.s. in
methanol and acetone; i.s. in aliphatic hydrocarbons
- Melting Point: 157-154 C 
- Vapor Pressure: 22.7 mPa @ 23 C
- Partition Coefficient: 0.031 @ 21 C 
- Adsorption Coefficient: 30 (estimated)
- ADI: 0.5 mg/kg/day 
- MCL: Not Available
- RfD: 0.15 mg/kg/day 
- PEL: Not Available
- HA: Not Available
- TLV: Not Available
Uniroyal Chemical Co., Inc.
Middlebury, CT 06749
- Phone: 203-573-2000
- Emergency: 203-723-3670
References for the information in this PIP can be found in
Reference List Number 10
information in this profile does not in any way replace or
supersede the information on the pesticide product labeling or
other regulatory requirements. Please refer to the pesticide