The information in this profile may be out-of-date. It was last revised
in 1996. EXTOXNET no longer updates this information, but it may be useful
as a reference or resource.
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E X T O X N E T
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and the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State
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EXTOXNET primary files maintained and archived at Oregon State
Revised June 1996
Trade and Other Names:
Trade names for products containing carboxin include Cadan,
Kisvax, Kemikar, Oxalin, Padan, Sanvex, Thiobel, Vegetox, and
Vitavax. It is often used in combination with other fungicides
such as thiram or captan.
Carboxin is classified as a General Use Pesticide (GUP) by the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It is in toxicity class III
- slightly toxic, and products containing it carry the Signal
Word CAUTION on the label.
Chemical Class: anilide
Carboxin is a systemic anilide fungicide. It is used as a seed
treatment for control of smut, rot, and blight on barley, oats,
rice, cotton, vegetables, corn, and wheat. It is also used to
control fairy rings on turf grass. Carboxin may be used to
prevent the formation of these diseases or may be used to cure
existing plant diseases.
- Acute toxicity: Carboxin is slightly
toxic. Symptoms of poisoning can include vomiting and
headache. Recovery is very rapid if the exposed
individual is treated quickly. The oral LD50 is 3820
mg/kg in rats and 3550 mg/kg in mice . The compound
produces very little skin irritation; however, it can
seriously irritate the eyes. Acute dermal exposure
results in an LD50 of greater than 8000 mg/kg in rabbits.
The inhalation LC50 (1-hour) is greater than 20 mg/L in
- Chronic toxicity: Rats fed doses up to
311 mg/kg/day for 28 days showed some fluid accumulation
in the liver, even at low doses . Another rat study
showed kidney changes at somewhat higher doses (1000
mg/kg) fed for 90 days . A 2-year rat study with
levels of up to 30 mg/kg produced no compound related
effects in physical appearance, behavior, blood
chemistry, or urinalysis . However, there were
changes in organ weights. Male and female mice also
showed liver effects after being fed high doses (912
mg/kg) of carboxin for 1 1/2 years . Beagle dogs
showed no effects at the highest dose tested, 15 mg/kg
for 2 years .
- Reproductive effects: A three-generation
study with rats showed treatment related effects on
reproductive performance at levels from 5 to 30
mg/kg/day. However, at the highest dose, there was only
moderate growth suppression in nursing pups . It is
unlikely that the compound would produce reproductive
effects in humans at expected exposure levels.
- Teratogenic effects: At the highest dose
tested (40 mg/kg) administered to pregnant rats on days 6
to 15, there were no birth defects in the offspring .
Pregnant rabbits treated with very high doses on days 6
to 27 of gestation had increased abortions but no fetal
malformations . These data indicate that carboxin is
- Mutagenic effects: Carboxin is either a
non-mutagen or is a very weak mutagen, based on
information from several studies on bacteria and
mammalian cells .
- Carcinogenic effects: A 2-year study
with rats fed up to 30 mg/kg/day showed no evidence of
increased tumor frequency . Mice fed up to 900
mg/kg/day for 84 weeks had no apparent compound related
increase in tumor formation. Carboxin does not appear to
- Organ toxicity: Animal studies have
demonstrated effects in the liver and kidneys.
- Fate in humans and animals: Rats
excreted almost all of a carboxin dose in 24 hours, with
most excreted in urine and some in feces . Rabbits
showed a similar excretion pattern. Carboxin is
incompletely absorbed in the gut, especially in rats
. The compound does not acumulate in animal tissues.
Only trace amounts of carboxin were found in rat tissues
48 hours after dosing . In milk cows fed up to 5 ppm
for 10 days, less than 2% of the administered dose was
found in tissues. However, significant levels were found
in milk a few days after exposure. The main breakdown
product is carboxin sulfoxide, for which the rat oral
LD50 is 2000 mg/kg. Carboxin sulfoxide is sold as a
pesticide also and is known as oxycarboxin .
- Effects on birds: The oral LD50 of
carboxin in chickens is very high, at 24 g/kg, indicating
that it has a very low acute toxicity . In chronic,
low exposure experiments over 5 1/2 months, changes were
noted in the digestive tract, cardiovascular system, and
blood of chickens .
- Effects on aquatic organisms: Carboxin
is highly toxic to fish. The 96-hour LC50 in rainbow
trout is greater than 0.1 mg/L . Carboxin is
practically nontoxic to freshwater invertebrates. The
LC50 is 217 mg/L in juvenile crayfish .
- Effects on other organisms: The compound
is nontoxic to bees .
- Breakdown in soil and groundwater:
Carboxin is rapidly degraded to carboxin sulfoxide in
soil. It has a low persistence, with a half-life of about
3 days in soil . In one study after 7 days, 95% of
the parent was gone and the sulfoxide, a breakdown
product, represented 31 to 45% of the amount applied .
Minor products formed were carboxin sulfone, hydroxy
carboxin, and CO2. Carboxin does not readily adsorb to
soil. Both parent and sulfoxide are very mobile and could
possibly leach to groundwater .
- Breakdown in water: In water, carboxin
oxidizes to the sulfoxide and sulfone within 7 days .
This happens both under ultraviolet light and in the
dark. Blue-green algae like Anabaena and Nostoc degrade
the pesticide extensively. Other algae can also break
down carboxin, but not to the same extent .
- Breakdown in vegetation: Although the
distribution pattern of the parent and sulfoxide
metabolite vary, carboxin is found systemically
(throughout the plant) in all species of plants studied.
Plants grown from treated seed had no carboxin present 6
weeks after emergence. Carboxin sulfoxide found in plants
can come either from the soil or through oxidation within
the plant .
- Appearance: Carboxin is a colorless
- Chemical Name: A
- CAS Number: 5234-68-4
- Molecular Weight: 235.31
- Water Solubility: 170 mg/L @ 25 C 
- Solubility in Other Solvents: acetone
v.s.; benzene s.s.; methanol s.s. 
- Melting Point: Two crystal structures:
91.5-92.5 C and 98-100 C 
- Vapor Pressure: <0.025 mPa @ 25 C 
- Partition Coefficient: 2.1703 
- Adsorption Coefficient: 260 
- ADI: Not Available
- MCL: Not Available
- RfD: 0.1 mg/kg/day 
- PEL: Not Available
- HA: 0.7 mg/L (lifetime) 
- TLV: Not Available
Uniroyal Chemical Co., Inc.
Middlebury, CT 06749
- Phone: 203-573-2000
- Emergency: 203-723-3670
References for the information in this PIP can be found in
Reference List Number 10
information in this profile does not in any way replace or
supersede the information on the pesticide product labeling or
other regulatory requirements. Please refer to the pesticide