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TRADE AND OTHER NAMES: Trade names for products containing carbophenothion include Trithion, Garrathion,
Dagadip, R-1303(1), Endyl, Lethox (2), Nephocarp, Acarithion, and Hexathion (3).
REGULATORY STATUS: Carbophenothion is a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP). It is for retail sale to and use only by
certified applicators or people directly supervised by them. The EPA requires a 2-day safety waiting interval between
application and worker reentry to fields to prevent unnecessary skin exposure (1, 4).
INTRODUCTION: Carbophenothion is an insecticide and acaricide (1, 2). A member of the organo-phosphate class of
chemicals, it has a long residual activity. For this reason, it is effective against the eggs and recently hatched young of many
species (6). It affects insects on contact and when consumed. It is used on citrus fruit and cotton to control aphids and
spider mites. When combined with petroleum oil, it controls over-wintering mites, aphids, and scale bugs (8, 9). It is also
used to control aphids, mites, suckers, and other pests on fruit, nuts, vegetables, sorghum, maize, and others. It is used to
control parasites on animals. Carbophenothion is available as an emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder, granules, and a
seed treatment (9). The EPA has classified carbophenothion as Category I - highly toxic. Products containing the active
ingredient bear the SIGNAL WORD: DANGER (5). Carbophenothion may enhance the toxicity of malathion and some
other compounds which are processed into more toxic forms by living organisms (10).
- Acute Toxicity: Carbophenothion affects the nervous system by inhibiting chlolinesterase (3). Symptoms of poisoning
include headache, blurred vision, weakness, nausea, discomfort in the chest, abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea,
salivation, sweating and pinpoint pupils (12, 16). It is highly toxic when eaten and nearly as toxic when absorbed through
the skin. The LD50, the dose of carbophenothion which kills half of the study animals who eat it, is 10 mg/kg for female
rats, 30 mg/kg for male rats and 218 mg/kg for mice (9). The LD50 for skin exposure to carbophenothion is 27 mg/kg
for female rats, 54 mg/kg for male rats, and 1,270 to 1,850 mg/kg for rabbits (8, 9, 11). The LC50, the concentration at
which half of the test rats die by inhaling carbophenothion is 0.002 mg/l of air (14). Carbophenothion causes irritation to
rabbit eyes, but symptoms clear within days (14).
- Chronic Toxicity: No Information Available.
- Reproductive Effects: A three generation study showed that a dose of 1-2 mg/kg/day of carbophenothion in the diet
caused reduced birth weight, increased stillbirths, and a decreased survival to weaning in rats (7). The level at which it
has no observable effect (NOEL) on reproduction is 0.5 mg/kg/day (4). The lowest dose which had an effect on
reproduction (LEL) is 1.5 mg/kg/day. At this level, rat pups' survival decreased and they weighed less than normal (14).
- Teratogenic Effects: Carbophenothion is not teratogenic (7).
- Mutagenic Effects: No information is available. However, since carbophenothion is an organophosphate compound and
most organophosphate compounds are not mutagenic, it is unlikely to be mutagenic (10).
- Carcinogenic Effects: A two-year feeding study of rats showed that a dose of 4 mg/kg/day of carbophenothion, the
highest dose tested, did not cause tumors (14).
- Organ Toxicity: As a cholinesterase inhibitor, carbophenothion affects the activity of nerves and the brain (9, 10).
Studies have shown that carbophenothion may also cause some reduction in the number of red blood cells and increased
adrenal gland weights in females (10).
- Fate in Humans and Animals: Carbophenothion is absorbed through the skin very quickly. It penetrates rat skin in less
than an hour (8). It is excreted from the body rapidly. The majority is excreted in urine and feces within 72 hours. Almost
none is retained in tissue (15).
- Effects on Birds: Carbophenothion is highly toxic to many birds (3). The LD50 is 5.6 mg/kg for European starlings,
29-35 mg/kg for the Canada goose, 121 mg/kg for mallard ducks, and 56.8 for Japanese quail. The LC50 for Japanese
quail who consume carbophenothion in their diet is 4,434 ppm (8).
- Effects on Aquatic Organisms: Carbophenothion is highly toxic to fish, crustaceans, marine organisms and amphibians
(3, 6). The LD50 is 56 ppb for rainbow trout and 13 ppb for bluegill sunfish, 0.47 ppb for pink shrimp and 17 ppb for
sheepshead minnow. Preliminary data show that Carbophenothion may accumulate in some species of minnow (4).
- Effects on Others (Nontarget species): Carbophenothion is highly toxic to bees. It is also highly toxic to wildlife,
including upland game birds (3, 4). Leaf damage may occur to Delicious apples and injury also has been reported on
grapefruit, kumquat, and citron from exposure to carbophenothion. It may injure ferns and a few sensitive rose varieties,
especially in warm, moist conditions (6, 9).
- Breakdown of Chemical in Soil and Groundwater: Carbophenothion persists in soils for longer than 6 months (8).
Preliminary data indicate that it is relatively immobile in sandy loam soils (4).
- Breakdown of Chemical in Surface Water: No information currently available.
- Breakdown of Chemical in Vegetation: A ten day waiting period between treatment with carbophenothion and
application of dinitro compounds is recommended because the combination may damage plant leaves (6).
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND GUIDELINES:
- Appearance: Carbophenothion in the pure form is a yellow-brown liquid with a mild mercaptan-like odor. It is
non-corrosive and relatively stable to hydrolysis and to temperatures up to 80 degrees C(9).
- Chemical Name: S-[[(p-chlorophenyl)thio] methyl] O,O-diethyl phosphorodithioate
- CAS Number: 786-19-6
- Molecular Weight: 342.87
- Water Solubility: 0.34 ppm at 20 degrees C (8)
- Solubility in Other Solvents: Miscible in most organic solvents including alcohols, ethers, toluene, benzene, xylene,
ketones, and mineral and vegetable oils (9)
- Melting Point: Not Available
- Vapor Pressure: Very Low (5)
- Partition Coefficient: Not Available
- Adsorption Coefficient: Not Available
- Boiling point: 82 degrees C
- ADI: 0.0125 mg/kg/day (13)
- MCL: Not Available
- RfD: Not Available
- PEL: Not Available
- HA: Not Available
- TLV: Not Available
- NOEL: 1.1 mg/kg/day (rat)(13)
ICI Americas, Inc.
New Murphy Road
Wilmington, DE 19897
- Telephone: 302-886-1000 or 800-323-8633
References for the information in this PIP can be found in Reference List Number 5
DISCLAIMER: The information in this profile does not in any way replace or supersede the information on the pesticide
product label/ing or other regulatory requirements. Please refer to the pesticide product label/ing.