The information in this profile may be out-of-date. It was last revised
in 1996. EXTOXNET no longer updates this information, but it may be useful
as a reference or resource.
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updated pesticide fact sheets.
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E X T O X N E T
A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension
Offices of Cornell University, Oregon State University, the
University of Idaho, and the University of California at Davis
and the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State
University. Major support and funding was provided by the
USDA/Extension Service/National Agricultural Pesticide Impact
EXTOXNET primary files maintained and archived at Oregon State
Revised June 1996
Trade and Other Names:
Product names include Adios, Bugmaster, Carbamec, Carbamine,
Crunch, Denapon, Dicarbam, Hexavin, Karbaspray, Nac, Rayvon,
Septene, Sevin, Tercyl, Torndao, Thinsec, Tricarnam, and Union
Carbaryl is a General Use Pesticide (GUP). However, various
formulations vary widely in toxicity. For example, it is
categorized as toxicity class I - highly toxic for Tercyl;
toxicity class II - moderately toxic for Sevin 803; and toxicity
class III - slightly toxic for some other products. Products
containing carbaryl may bear the Signal Word DANGER - POISON,
WARNING, or CAUTION depending on the product formulation.
Carbaryl is a wide-spectrum carbamate insecticide which controls
over 100 species of insects on citrus, fruit, cotton, forests,
lawns, nuts, ornamentals, shade trees, and other crops, as well
as on poultry, livestock, and pets. It is also used as a
molluscicide and an acaricide. Carbaryl works whether it is
ingested into the stomach of the pest or absorbed through direct
contact. It is available as bait, dusts, wettable powders,
granules, dispersions and suspensions.
Formulation: It is
available as bait, dusts, wettable powders, granules,
dispersions, and suspensions.
- Acute toxicity: Carbaryl is moderately
to very toxic. It can produce adverse effects in humans
by skin contact, inhalation, or ingestion. The symptoms
of acute toxicity are typical of the other carbamates.
Direct contact of the skin or eyes with moderate levels
of this pesticide can cause burns. Inhalation or
ingestion of very large amounts can be toxic to the
nervous and respiratory systems resulting in nausea,
stomach cramps, diarrhea, and excessive salivation. Other
symptoms at high doses include sweating, blurring of
vision, incoordination, and convulsions. The only
documented fatality from carbaryl was through intentional
ingestion. The oral LD50 of carbaryl ranges from 250
mg/kg to 850 mg/kg in rats, and from 100 mg/kg to 650
mg/kg in mice [8,24]. The inhalation LC50 in rats is
greater than 200 mg/L . Low doses can cause minor
skin and eye irritation in rabbits, a species in which
carbaryl's dermal LD50 has been measured at greater than
2000 mg/kg .
- Chronic toxicity: Not Available
- Reproductive effects: No reproductive or
fetal effects were observed during a long-term study of
rats fed high doses of carbaryl .
- Teratogenic effects: The evidence for
teratogenic effects due to chronic exposure is minimal in
test animals. Birth defects in rabbit and guinea pig
offspring occurred only at dosage levels that were highly
toxic to the mother .
- Mutagenic effects: Carbaryl has been
shown to affect cell division and chromosomes in rats
. However, numerous studies indicate that carbaryl
poses only a slight mutagenic risk [8,26]. There is a
possibility that carbaryl may react in the human stomach
to form a more mutagenic compound, but this has not been
demonstrated. In sum, the evidence suggests that carbaryl
is unlikely to be mutagenic to humans [26,27].
- Carcinogenic effects: Technical-grade
carbaryl has not caused tumors in long-term and lifetime
studies of mice and rats. Rats were administered high
daily doses of the pesticide for 2 years, and mice for 18
months, with no signs of carcinogenicity . While
N-nitrosocarbaryl, a possible by-product, has been shown
to be carcinogenic in rats at high doses, this product
has not been detected. Thus, the evidence indicates that
carbaryl is unlikely to be carcinogenic to humans .
- Organ toxicity: Ingestion of carbaryl
affects the lungs, kidneys, and liver. Inhalation will
also affect the lungs [5,30]. Nerve damage can occur
after administration of high doses for 50 days in rats
and pigs . Several studies indicate that carbaryl can
affect the immune system in animals and insects. Male
volunteers who consumed low doses of carbaryl for 6 weeks
did not show symptoms, but tests indicate slight changes
in their body chemistry . A 2-year study with rats
revealed no effects at or below a dose of 10 mg/kg/day
- Fate in humans and animals: Most
animals, including humans, readily break down carbaryl
and rapidly excrete it in the urine and feces. Workers
occupationally exposed by inhalation to carbaryl dust
excreted 74% of the inhaled dose in the urine in the form
of a breakdown product . The metabolism of up to 85%
of carbaryl occurs within 24 hours after administration
- Effects on birds: Carbaryl is
practically nontoxic to wild bird species. The LD50
values are greater than 2000 mg/kg in mallards and
pheasants, 2230 mg/kg in quail, and 1000 to 3000 mg/kg in
- Effects on aquatic organisms: Carbaryl
is moderately toxic to aquatic organisms, such as rainbow
trout (LC50 of 1.3 mg/L), and bluegill (LC50 of 10 mg/L)
. Some accumulation of carbaryl can occur in catfish,
crawfish, and snails, as well as in algae and duckweed.
Residue levels in fish were 140-fold greater than the
concentration of carbaryl in water. In general, due to
its rapid metabolism and rapid degradation, carbaryl
should not pose a significant bioaccumulation risk in
alkaline waters. However, under conditions below
neutrality, it may be significant .
- Effects on other organisms: Carbaryl is
lethal to many non-target insects, including bees and
beneficial insects .
- Breakdown in soil and groundwater:
Carbaryl has a low persistence in soil. Degradation of
carbaryl in the soil is mostly due to sunlight and
bacterial action. It is bound by organic matter and can
be transported in soil runoff. Carbaryl has a half-life
of 7 to 14 days in sandy loam soil and 14 to 28 days in
clay loam soil. Carbaryl has been detected in groundwater
in three separate cases in California .
- Breakdown in water: In surface water,
carbaryl is broken down by bacteria and through
hydrolysis. Evaporation is very slow. Carbaryl has a
half-life of about 10 days at neutral pH. The half-life
varies greatly with water acidity .
- Breakdown in vegetation: Degradation of
carbaryl in crops occurs by hydrolysis inside the plants.
It has a short residual life of less than 2 weeks. The
metabolites of carbaryl have lower toxicity to humans
than carbaryl itself. The breakdown of this substance is
strongly dependent on acidity and temperature .
- Appearance: Carbaryl is a solid that
varies from colorless to white or gray, depending on the
purity of the compound. The crystals are odorless.
Carbaryl is stable to heat, light, and acids. It is not
stable under alkaline conditions. It is noncorrosive to
metals, packaging materials, and application equipment.
- Chemical Name: 1-napthyl methylcarbamate
- CAS Number: 63-25-2
- Molecular Weight: 201.23
- Water Solubility: 40 mg/L @ 30 C 
- Solubility in Other Solvents:
dimethylformaldehyde v.s; acetone s.; dimethyl sulfoxide
v.s.; cyclohexanone s. 
- Melting Point: 142 C 
- Vapor Pressure: <5.3 mPa @ 25 C 
- Partition Coefficient: Not Available
- Adsorption Coefficient: 300 
- ADI: 0.01 mg/kg/day 
- MCL: Not Available
- RfD: 0.1 mg/kg/day 
- PEL: 5 mg/m3 (8-hour) 
- HA: 0.7 mg/L (lifetime) 
- TLV: Not Available
Rhone-Poulec Ag. Co.
P.O. Box 12014
2 T.W. Alexander Dr.
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
- Phone: 919-549-2000
- Emergency: 800-334-7577
References for the information in this PIP can be found in
Reference List Number 3
information in this profile does not in any way replace or
supersede the information on the pesticide product labeling or
other regulatory requirements. Please refer to the pesticide