Health Study Examines Pesticide
Does FDA Have A
Phone Number for Food Safety Information?
FDA and USDA
Determine Swine Fed Adulterated Product
Dispels Common Misconceptions Related to Poisons
Mercury in Fish
and Shellfish Brochure
Health Officer Advises Consumers Not to Eat Some Shellfish and
Viscera of Sardines, Anchovies, and Crab from 5 Southern California
Early Onset of Warm Weather Triggers
an Early West Nile Virus Season
RWIS While Swimming
FARAD Public Access to be Closed
Effective May 15th Due to Lack of Funding
FDA Removes Hydrogen Peroxide from the
List of Low Regulatory Priority Aquaculture Drugs
Clarifies Extra-label Use of Medicated Feed in Minor Species
Deaths - United States, 1999-2004
In 2004, poisoning was second only to
motor-vehicle crashes as a
cause of death from unintentional injury in the United States.
Nearly all poisoning deaths in the United States are attributed to
drugs, and most drug poisonings
result from the abuse of prescription
and illegal drugs. Previous reports have indicated a
substantial increase in unintentional poisoning mortality during the
1980s and 1990s. To further examine this trend, CDC
analyzed the most current data from the National Vital Statistics
report summarizes the results of that analysis, which
determined that poisoning mortality
rates in the United States
increased each year from 1999 to 2004, rising 62.5% during the 5-year
period. The largest increases were among females (103.0%), whites
(75.8%), persons living in the southern United States (113.6%), and
persons aged 15-24 years (113.3%). Larger rate increases
states with mostly rural populations. Rates for drug poisoning deaths
increased 68.3%, and mortality rates for poisonings by other substances
increased 1.3%. The largest increases were in the "other and
unspecified," psychotherapeutic, and narcotic drug categories. The
results suggest that more aggressive regulatory, educational, and
treatment measures are necessary to address the increase in fatal drug
Mortality data for 2004 were collected from the
Statistics System. Unintentional poisoning deaths that
occurred during 1999-2004 included
overdoses of illegal drugs and legal drugs taken for nonmedical
reasons, poisoning from legal drugs taken in error or at the wrong
dose, and poisoning from other substances (e.g., alcohol, pesticides,
or carbon monoxide). Adverse effects of legal drugs taken in the proper
doses and as directed were not
included in this analysis.
The number of unintentional poisoning deaths
increased from 12,186
in 1999 to 20,950 in 2004. The annual age-adjusted rate increased
62.5%, from 4.4 per 100,000 population in 1999 to 7.1 in 2004. The
increase among females, from 2.3 to 4.7 per 100,000 population
(103.0%), was twice the increase among males, from 6.5 to 9.5 per
100,000 population (47.1%). Among males,
rates among whites, American Indians/Alaska Natives, and Asians/Pacific
Islanders all increased approximately 50%. Rates among black males were
highest in 1999 but did not increase. Among females, rates among whites
more than doubled, whereas nonwhites had smaller increases or
decreased. Overall, rates increased 75.8% among whites, 55.8% among
American Indians/Alaska Natives, 27.4% among Asians/Pacific Islanders,
and 11.2% among blacks. Rates among non-Hispanics increased more than
rates among Hispanics for both sexes. Among all sex and racial/ethnic
groups, the largest increase (136.5%) was among non-Hispanic white
females. Among all age groups, the largest increase occurred among
persons aged 15-24 years (113.3%). In 2004, the highest rates were
among persons aged 35-54 years, who accounted for 59.6% of all
poisoning deaths that year.
The increase in poisoning mortality occurred
among persons whose deaths were coded as unintentional drug poisoning,
for which the rate increased 68.3%.
The rate for poisoning deaths attributed to other substances increased
1.3%. By 2004, drug poisoning accounted for 19,838 deaths,
94.7% of all unintentional poisoning deaths. Among types of drug
poisoning, the greatest increases were in the "other and unspecified"
drug, psychotherapeutic drug, and "narcotic and hallucinogen" drug
Unintentional drug poisoning mortality rates increased substantially
in the United States during 1999-2004. Previous studies, using
multiple cause-of-death data, have indicated that the trend described
in this report can be attributed primarily to increasing numbers of
deaths associated with prescription opioid analgesics (e.g., oxycodone)
and secondarily to increasing numbers of overdoses of cocaine and
prescription psychotherapeutic drugs (e.g., sedatives),
attributed to heroin, methamphetamines, or other illegal drugs.
The mortality increases might be the result of
greater use and abuse
of potentially lethal prescription drugs in recent years, behaviors
that are more common among whites than nonwhites. The
substantial increase in deaths among persons aged 15-24 years is
consistent with substantial recent increases in recreational
prescription drug and cocaine use among adolescents and young adults.
Studies by state health agencies have reported
recent increases in
prescription-drug-poisoning mortality in rural communities, despite
historically higher rates in urban areas. The South and Midwest
regions, which had the largest relative and absolute increases among
regions in this study, are the most rural regions of the country.
Further research is needed to determine how differences in drug use,
drug-abuse-control measures, and demographic characteristics (e.g.,
race/ethnicity) contribute to this pattern.
Effective response to increasing fatal drug
strengthening regulatory measures to reduce unsafe use of drugs,
increasing physician awareness regarding appropriate pharmacologic
treatment of pain and psychiatric problems, supporting best practices
for treating drug dependence, and potentially modifying prescription
drugs to reduce their potential for abuse. State agencies that manage
prescription-monitoring programs should use such systems to proactively
identify 1) patients who abuse drugs and fill multiple prescriptions
from different health-care providers and 2) providers whose prescribing
practices are outside the standards of appropriate medical care. Both
federal and state prevention measures should be evaluated periodically
to determine their effectiveness.
REF: MMWR Weekly Report, February 9, 2007 / 56(05);93-96.
In December 2006, the Orange County Health Care
Agency (OCHCA) and
California Department of Health Services (CDHS) were notified of two
potential cases of foodborne botulism in an older Asian couple. This
summarizes the subsequent investigation, which identified
home-prepared fermented tofu (soybean curd) as the source. The public
should be aware of the risk for botulism when preparing fermented tofu
Botulism is a toxin-induced paralytic illness
cranial nerve palsies and descending flaccid paralysis. Treatment is
based on supportive care and administration of botulinum antitoxin;
recovery can take from weeks to months. Foodborne botulism results from
eating foods containing botulinum toxin. Although rare,
foodborne botulism is a public health emergency because of the
potential severity of illness and exposure of many persons to
On November 28, 2006, a woman aged 67 years had
onset of double
vision, followed the next day by bilateral ptosis. An ophthalmologist
attributed these symptoms to long-standing diabetes mellitus. On
December 4, she visited her primary-care physician because of double
vision, ptosis, dizziness, difficulty swallowing, slurred speech,
drooling, and right arm weakness. Physical examination revealed
limitation of upward gaze, bilateral ptosis, sluggish tongue movement,
and mild right upper extremity weakness.
The woman's husband, aged 75 years, reported 3
days of worsening
double vision, dizziness, and difficulty swallowing. On physical
examination, he also had mild right ptosis and sluggish tongue
Both patients were admitted to an intensive care
unit. On December
5, physicians suspected foodborne botulism, notified OCHCA, and
collected clinical specimens for testing. CDHS dispatched botulinum
antitoxin to the hospital, and it was administered to the couple. Both
patients were hospitalized for more than 1 week with no further symptom
progression. Botulinum toxin was not detected in serum or stool samples
from the patients. However, Clostridium botulinum type A was
detected in enrichment cultures of the stool samples of both patients.
Both patients have some blurred vision but otherwise have recovered.
On December 5, OCHCA visited the couple's home
multiple potential sources of intoxication. OCHCA interviewed the
patients using photos of home-prepared food items to overcome the
language barrier and identify the most suspect food. The patients
reported they recently had been eating a new batch of home-prepared
fermented tofu. Although both had eaten fermented tofu from this batch
every day, the woman ate more than her husband. CDHS Microbial Diseases
Laboratory found both C. botulinum type A and botulinum toxin
type A in the fermented tofu samples, which had a pH of 6.8.
The tofu was a commercially packaged product
purchased at a retail
market. In the home, the tofu was boiled, towel dried, and cut into
cubes. The cubes were placed in a bowl, covered with plastic wrap, and
stored at room temperature for 10-15 days. The tofu was then
transferred to glass jars with chili powder, salt, white cooking wine,
vegetable oil, and chicken bouillon to marinate at room temperature for
2-3 more days. Finally, the fermented tofu was stored and eaten at
C. botulinum spores exist widely in the
proper food-preparation practices inhibit spore germination and toxin
conditions that facilitate spore germination and growth include a pH
>4.6, anaerobic conditions, low salt or sugar content, and
temperatures >39.2 F (>4 C). In the case described in this
the growth of C. botulinum and production of toxin might have
been facilitated by several factors: 1) the almost neutral pH of the
fermented tofu, 2) boiling the tofu, potentially creating an anaerobic
environment, and 3) room temperature (approximately 68-77 F) storage of
the product for days during and after preparation.
The wife reported she has lived in the United
States for more than
25 years and, during this time, has prepared fermented tofu using the
same recipe she learned as a student in Taiwan. Preparation of this
batch was not notably different, and the reason for contamination this
time is not clear.
This is the first U.S. report of botulism caused
home-prepared fermented tofu. Historically, most foodborne botulism
cases in the United States result from consumption of improperly
prepared home-canned foods. However, fermented foods,
including fish, seal, and whale, also have been associated with
botulism. Fermented tofu is popular in Asia, and homemade fermented
bean products, including tofu, are the most common foods causing
botulism in China. During 1958-1989, home-fermented bean
associated with 63% of approximately 2,000 cases of botulism in China.
Clinicians, public health workers, and the public should be advised
that home preparation of fermented tofu can result in foodborne
REF: MMWR Weekly Report, February 9, 2007 / 56(05);96-97.
of Results from the California Pesticide
Illness Surveillance Program -
Executive Summary: The California
Department of Pesticide
Regulation’s Pesticide Illness
Surveillance Program (PISP) seeks to identify any health effect caused
by pesticides. While
DPR strives to collect as many individual reports on illnesses and
injuries as possible, within
resource constraints, our primary goals are to identify high-risk
situations that warrant
regulatory action; and to promote pro-active, health-protective
measures, especially for those
individuals who regularly face the highest pesticide exposure risks.
The 2005 PISP summary continued to capture a wide
range of pesticide
illnesses in California, with 1,323 cases investigated (compared to
1,238 investigations in
2004). Investigation confirmed pesticide exposure as a potential causal
factor in 911 cases
in 2005, compared to 828 cases in 2004.
Two significant points of interest emerge from
the 2005 data. First,
full one-third of the investigations involved a single incident: A
field fumigation in
Monterey County allowed irritant vapors to escape into a suburban
neighborhood. The incident graphically demonstrated the potential
impacts of pesticide drift, and
underscored the need for strong restrictions to prevent situations that
may lead to drift
The second point of interest involves a sharp
decline in the number
non-occupational injury reports. Apart from the Monterey incident, only
cases were investigated in 2005, nearly a ten-fold decline from some
An obvious explanation is related to DPR budget
cuts four years ago.
that time, DPR was unable to take over a federally funded project with
Poison Control System (CPCS), which monitors emergency calls for toxic
DPR annually received hundreds of CPCS-mediated pesticide illness
reports until 2002, when
federal funding for the project was exhausted. By late last year, the
improved condition of
DPR’s budget allowed the Department to fund resumption of the project.
DPR also continues to work with the Office of
Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) on a pilot project to improve physician
reporting of pesticide
cases. While state law requires such reporting, compliance has been
spotty for years, despite
extensive DPR efforts to inform the medical community of its
responsibilities. With federal
funding, DPR and OEHHA are working to integrate pesticide reporting
into a statewide,
internet-based system. The project now under development also involves
cooperation with local health
officials and agricultural commissioners in three pilot counties.
The number of suspected pesticide injuries to
farm field workers in
2005 – 132 cases involving drift, 28 residue -- declined in comparison
to 2004, with 180 and 68
This continues a long-term decline since the
1980s, when more than
workers were injured in some years. However, DPR continues to seek
further improvements in
field safety, such as worker notification rules.
DPR Launches Toll-Free Phone for
Californians who have pesticide complaints can
one toll-free phone number for help, the California Department of
Pesticide Regulation announced.
The new service, 1-87PestLine (1-877-378-5463),
transfers callers to
their County Agricultural Commissioner´s Office with recorded
information in English and Spanish.
“Our goal is to help people with their pesticide
problems as quickly
as possible,“ said DPR Director Mary-Ann Warmerdam. “The 1-87PestLine
is an important innovation that will help us and our local partners,
the County Agricultural Commissioners, enforce pesticide laws and
protect the public.
“Despite previous DPR outreach efforts, many
people seem to be
unaware of how to report pesticide complaints, or whom to call,“ said
Warmerdam. “The new 1-87PestLine will speed up reporting and response
time. This could be especially helpful for illness investigations.“
The new, toll-free service was launched as DPR
released its latest
annual summary of pesticide illness reports. The 2005 illness summary
found 911 individual cases related to pesticide exposure. Of these, 647
were agricultural and 263 were non-agricultural. (One case could not be
That compares to 828 total cases in 2004. Some
agricultural, 438 non-agricultural.
Non-occupational injury reports have been on the
decline since 2002,
when federal funding ran out for a project that linked DPR to reports
from the California Poison Control System. The system, which provides
emergency responders with information on toxic exposures, led DPR to
hundreds of pesticide cases annually. Many involved home accidents.
Thanks to an improved outlook for DPR’s budget, the Department
restarted the project with its own funds in October 2006.
DPR has long recognized that consumer injuries
and complaints are
less likely to be reported, either because people do not know how to
file a complaint or do not seek medical treatment for an injury. When
medical help is sought, DPR has found that physicians often fail to
report non-occupational cases to local health officers.
In the agricultural sector, pesticide drift
remains a significant
source of injuries, the 2005 DPR summary showed. The largest drift
investigation in 2005 involved release of chloropicrin during a farm
field fumigation adjacent to a neighborhood in Salinas. A total of 324
injuries were related to that mishap.
Earlier this year, Warmerdam set a DPR goal to
“aim for zero“ major
incidents such as the Salinas drift case. Such incidents may involve
several victims who require medical attention, or just one person if
hospitalization occurs (excluding suicide attempts). Significant
environmental and property damage are other examples of major
“DPR’s 1-87PestLine service is another tool that
will help us
´aim for zero´, “ said Warmerdam. “Later this year, we will
also produce two new print guides for the public. One will help people
involved in pesticide emergencies. The second will help people
understand DPR’s regulatory work, and how they can participate in
setting pesticide policies.“
The toll-free number will be listed under
“Pesticide“ in the state
government pages of phone books statewide. DPR will also sponsor public
service announcements, handouts, and other materials featuring a
1-87PestLine logo during the next 18 months. The Department also is
asking local agencies, worker advocates, and environmental groups to
help publicize 1-87PestLine.
A statewide summary of pesticide illnesses in
2005, is available at www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/whs/2005pisp.htm
Individual county illness statistics for 2005 are
available at www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/pressrls/2007/2005illnesstable.pdf.
DPR researchers emphasize that these statistics
alone are not an
indicator of the effectiveness of pesticide regulation at the local
level. Illness statistics are compiled and summarized statewide to
analyze illness trends and help determine whether existing safeguards
REF: CDPR News Release, February
28, 2007 (07-02)
Statement on European Aspartame Study
FDA has completed its review concerning
carcinogenicity study of aspartame entitled, "Long-Term Carcinogenicity
Bioassays to Evaluate the Potential Biological Effects, in Particular
Carcinogenic, of Aspartame Administered in Feed to Sprague-Dawley
Rats," conducted by the European Ramazzini Foundation (ERF), located in
Bologna, Italy. FDA reviewed the study data made available to them by
ERF and finds that it does not support
ERF's conclusion that aspartame
is a carcinogen. Additionally, these data do not provide
alter FDA's conclusion that the use of aspartame is safe.
Aspartame was first approved in the United States
in 1981 and is one
of the most widely used artificial sweeteners. When metabolized by the
body, aspartame is broken down into two common amino acids, aspartic
acid and phenylalanine, and a third substance, methanol. These three
substances are available in similar or greater amounts from eating
Upon first learning of the ERF study results, FDA
requested the data
from ERF to evaluate the findings. On February 28, 2006, the agency
received only a portion of the study data requested. In June 2006, FDA
asked ERF to provide the remainder of the study data initially
requested and also offered to review pathology slides from the study.
ERF did not submit additional data to FDA and did not agree to FDA's
review of the pathology slides.
FDA could not conduct a complete and definitive
review of the study
because ERF did not provide the full study data. Based on the available
data, however, we have identified significant shortcomings in the
design, conduct, reporting, and interpretation of this study. FDA finds
that the reliability and interpretation of the study outcome is
compromised by these shortcomings and uncontrolled variables, such as
the presence of infection in the test animals.
Additionally, the data that were provided to FDA
do not appear to
support the aspartame-related findings reported by ERF. Based on our
review, pathological changes were incidental and appeared spontaneously
in the study animals, and none of the histopathological changes
reported appear to be related to treatment with aspartame. FDA believes
that additional insight on the study findings could be provided by an
internationally-sponsored pathology working group examination of
appropriate tissue slides from the study.
Considering results from the large number of
studies on aspartame's
safety, including five previously conducted negative chronic
carcinogenicity studies, a recently reported large epidemiology study
with negative associations between the use of aspartame and the
occurrence of tumors, and negative findings from a series of three
transgenic mouse assays, FDA finds no
reason to alter its previous
conclusion that aspartame is safe as a general purpose sweetener in
REF: CFSAN/Office of Food Additive Safety,
April 20, 2007.
DPR Plans New Restrictions on 2
Offers More Public Input on Risk
Department of Pesticide Regulation will impose new restrictions on two
fumigants to prevent drift incidents and injuries in farm fields
By fall, DPR will put additional controls on
metam-potassium. Both pre-plant fumigants break down into a volatile
gas that may cause eye and respiratory irritation. Several major drift
incidents related to these chemicals have occurred in recent years.
“Strong efforts by our local partners, the County
Commissioners, have already reduced the number of incidents involving
these fumigants,” said DPR Director Mary-Ann Warmerdam. “Now we want to
improve on that with new controls, based on a scientific foundation,
that reinforce our ‘zero tolerance’ policy for pesticide injuries.”
Warmerdam said the fumigant rules also would
serve as pilot project
for more public involvement in DPR risk management decisions. In the
past, DPR issued local use recommendations to agricultural
commissioners without formal public input. There is no statutory
requirement to do so.
“The Schwarzenegger Administration wants fair and
environmental decisions,” said Warmerdam. “People who hold an
environmental and economic stake in pesticides deserve a voice in DPR’s
decision-making process. We already consult with industry and
environmental advocates. We’ve also launched an environmental justice
project in a rural, agricultural community. Opening our risk management
process is another logical step for an environmental agency that is
responsive to public needs and concerns.”
DPR will hold public workshops in May and accept
through June. The new restrictions will initially take the form of
recommended permit conditions for County Agricultural Commissioners.
That will allow implementation this year. Next year, DPR will put
restrictions into formal, statewide regulations that are subject to
More than 14 million pounds of metam-sodium was
California in 2004 and about 13 million pounds in 2005. Metam-potassium
use totaled about 851,000 pounds in 2004 and 1.9 million pounds in
2005. The fumigants are used to treat weeds and other pests in
vegetable fields before crops are planted.
New controls under consideration include:
- Extended buffer zones up to one-half mile, depending on
application method, rate of application, acreage treated, and other
- Special pre-application notification for sensitive sites
(schools, homes, hospitals, farm worker housing) within 300 feet of the
edge of a buffer zone; more restrictive controls on applications within
one-quarter mile of sensitive sites.
- English and Spanish warning signs to warn workers in adjacent
farm fields, if buffer zones extend into those fields.
Acreage and application rate limits on other
fumigants will be
addressed next month, when DPR proposes new rules for seven fumigants
to meet clean air standards.
Tighter controls on metam-sodium and
metam-potassium began with
interim DPR permit conditions after drift incidents in the late 1990s.
County Agricultural Commissioners also invoked their own permit
conditions in recent years.
In 2004, DPR completed a risk assessment for MITC
isothiocyanate), a breakdown chemical of metam-sodium and metam
potassium. MITC may cause eye and respiratory irritation with brief
exposure at relatively low levels.
DPR’s risk assessment led the Department to
support new measures to
reduce the risk of acute exposures and illness. DPR decided to focus on
soil injection and irrigation sprinkler uses, since they are the
primary agricultural application methods. Other uses will be examined
Public comment details:
Workshop and comment sessions will be held May 30
at the Tulare
County Agricultural Commissioner’s Office, Agricultural Building
Auditorium, 4437 South Laspina St., in Tulare. The first session runs
from 1 to 3:30 p.m. and the repeat session from 7 to 9:30 p.m.
Written comments will also be accepted until June
30. Letters should
be addressed to Linda O’ Connell, DPR, P.O. Box 4015, Sacramento, CA
95812. Send e-mails to email@example.com
, or fax comments to 916-445-4280, attention Linda O’ Connell.
For more on proposed permit conditions, see: www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/dprdocs/methbrom/fum_regs.htm#metamsodium
The highly pathogenic H5NI strains of avian flu
transmitted from wild birds to domestic poultry are currently
transmissible to humans only with great difficulty, as a result of
close direct contact with live or dead infected birds. This is probably
because the receptors for H5N1 in humans are deep in the lungs but not
in the nose, throat or upper respiratory tract.
When H5N1 is present in poultry, the virus can be
present in meat
and eggs from affected birds. However,
if poultry meat is handled with
good hygiene and meat or eggs are properly cooked (the same precautions
needed to avoid bacterial food poisoning) there is no risk to humans
The worst case scenario for human health is if
H5N1 mutates into a
form which, while retaining its virulence, could attach to receptors in
the nose, throat or upper respiratory tract. The mutated virus could
then be more easily caught by humans and transmitted from human to
human, leading to a global pandemic. Such an event could theoretically
occur by genetic recombination if a person suffering from flu caused by
a 'normal' human strain of influenza virus acquired an H5N1 virus,
which itself had little capacity to infect humans. The World Health
Organization, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, EU Commission and
many national governments are making plans to try to avert or cope with
such an eventuality.
Following poultry outbreaks of H5N1 avian flu in
many countries, an
outbreak of H5N1 at a turkey farm in the UK in early February 2007 has
proved to be essentially identical to the strain that occurred in two
flocks of geese in Hungary in late January 2007, and investigations
have concluded that the most plausible vector was imported
semi-processed raw turkey meat from Hungary; that there was no evidence
any meat entered the UK food chain from the restricted zones in
Hungary; and that the risk to the health of the workers in the
processing plant, or the wider poultry farm was very low.
Institute of Food Science and Technology The
complete document can
be downloaded from:http://www.ifst.org/uploadedfiles/cms/store/ATTACHMENTS/AvianInfluenzaandFood.pdf
REF: Veterinary News, January-March 2007
Annual Summary Calendar Year 2005
This summary of results for 2005 is the 15th Annual
Summary of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Pesticide Data
Program (PDP). In 1991, USDA was charged with designing and
implementing a program to collect data on pesticide residues in food.
The responsibility for this program was given to USDA’s Agricultural
Marketing Service (AMS).
2005, PDP tested fresh and processed fruit and
vegetables, soybeans, wheat, milk, heavy cream, pork, bottled water,
and drinking water for various insecticides, herbicides, fungicides,
and growth regulators. Of the 14,749 total samples collected and
analyzed, 10,154 were fruit and vegetable commodities including apples,
cantaloupe, cauliflower, eggplant, grapes, grapefruit, fresh and frozen
green beans, lettuce, oranges and orange juice, pears, fresh and dried
plums (prunes), strawberries, watermelon, and winter squash. PDP also
tested 668 soybean (plus 306 for a soybean rust/aphid special survey),
674 wheat, 746 milk, 369 heavy cream, 704 pork, 378 bottled water, and
750 drinking water samples.
Excluding drinking water, approximately 84 percent
of all samples
tested were from U.S. sources, 14 percent were imports, 1 percent was
of mixed origin, and approximately 1 percent was of unknown origin.
Approximately 21 percent of the orange juice samples were of mixed
Overall, 73 percent of fresh fruit and vegetables
and 61 percent of
processed fruit and vegetables showed detectable residues. More
residues were detected in fresh produce than in processed products and
grains. Residues detected in dairy products and pork samples were
primarily low level residues of unavoidable environmental contaminants,
including DDE p,p’ and dieldrin. Additionally, low levels of
diphenylamine were detected in dairy products.
Excluding drinking water, 34 percent of samples
tested contained no
detectable pesticides [parent compound and metabolite(s) combined], 30
percent contained 1 pesticide, and 36 percent contained more than 1
pesticide. Low levels of environmental contaminants were detected in
cantaloupe, cauliflower, green beans, heavy cream, lettuce, milk, pork,
watermelon, and winter squash at concentrations well below levels that
trigger regulatory actions.
Excluding samples for which no tolerances are set
and drinking water), residues exceeding the tolerance were detected in
0.2 percent of the 13,621 samples tested in 2005 – 25 samples with 1
residue each. A tolerance is the maximum amount of a pesticide residue
allowable on a raw agricultural commodity. Established tolerances are
listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 180. Residues
with no established tolerance were found in 4.2 percent of the samples
(570 samples with 1 residue each, and 2 samples with 2 residues each).
In most cases, these residues were detected at very low levels and some
residues may have resulted from spray drift or crop rotations. PDP
communicates these findings to FDA when they are reported by testing
In finished drinking water, PDP detected low levels
parts per trillion) of some pesticides, primarily widely used
herbicides. Forty-eight different residues were detected in the
untreated intake water and 43 in the treated water. The majority of
pesticides, metabolites, and isomers included in the PDP testing
profiles were not detected. None of the detections in the finished
water samples exceeded established EPA Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL)
or Health Advisory (HA) levels or established Freshwater Aquatic
Organism (FAO) criteria.
This publication, the PDP database file for 2005,
summaries and database files for previous years are available on the
PDP Website at:
FDA is warning
consumers of the dangers of
drinking raw milk, or milk that has not been pasteurized.
Raw milk potentially contains a variety of harmful bacteria including Salmonella,
Listeria, and E. coli O157:H7. Government figures show
that between 1998 and 2005, unpasteurized milk was responsible for
1,007 illnesses, 104 hospitalizations, and two deaths.
U.S. FDA Press Release on Contact with Baby
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is urgently
reminding the public
that contact with baby turtles can pose a serious health risk to
infants, small children, and adults with impaired immune systems as
they can be natural hosts to Salmonella, a group of bacteria that can
cause severe illness and death. Recently, a four-week old infant in
Florida died of infection traced to Salmonella pomona, a bacteria that
was also found in a pet turtle in the home.
Salmonella is the genus name of a number of bacteria
associated with food poisoning from contaminated or undercooked foods,
and salmonellosis is the disease the bacteria can cause. Salmonella can
be found on the outer skin and shell surfaces of the turtles causing
salmonellosis for those handling turtles without properly washing their
hands after handling the animals.
FDA is reminding parents and others
who care for children of the
In the early 1970's, it was
determined that pet
red-eared sliders, were responsible for an estimated 280,000 cases of
salmonellosis each year in the United States. In 1975, FDA banned the
sale of turtles with a shell less than four inches long as a necessary
public health measure. FDA has repeatedly emphasized the risks of
turtle-associated salmonellosis because of a resurgence in the sales of
such turtles in the last four years. The public health impact of
turtle-associated salmonellosis in humans is an estimated 74,000 cases
in the United States per year.
- The sale of turtles with a shell less than four
inches long is illegal.
Exceptions to FDA's regulation include sales of these turtles intended
for export only or for bona fide scientific, educational, or
- Salmonella infection can be caused by contact
turtles in petting
zoos, parks, child day care facilities and other locations; and
- It is important to wash hands thoroughly with
and water after
handling or touching turtles and their housing.
Salmonella infection can be transmitted either
directly from contact
with the turtle or its feces, or indirectly through the animal's water.
Turtles with Salmonella usually do not appear to be sick. Their feces
do not always contain the bacteria, therefore a single negative test
does not prove they are Salmonella-free.
Although anyone can acquire a salmonellosis
infection, the risk is
highest in infants, young children, the elderly, and others with
lowered natural resistance to disease. Pregnancy, cancer, chemotherapy,
organ transplant, diabetes, and liver problems pose particular risks.
Gastrointestinal symptoms following Salmonella exposure begin in 6 to
72 hours (usually 12 to 36 hours) and generally last for two to seven
For more information on FDA's regulation of turtles, please see the
Health Study Examines Pesticide
The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is the largest,
study of agricultural health conducted in the United States. Almost
90,000 people are participating in the Agricultural Health Study -
about 31,000 from North Carolina and 59,000 from Iowa. Participants
include certified private pesticide applicators (farmers) and their
spouses in North Carolina and Iowa and certified commercial pesticide
applicators (5,000) in Iowa only.
Another important feature of the Agricultural Health
Study is that it
is one of the largest health studies of rural women ever conducted.
About 3% of pesticide applicators in the study are women (1,359). Over
half of the farmers’ spouses are active in farm work, including mixing
and applying pesticides.
The credibility of this study and the resulting
research findings are
high. AHS results were first released in late 2005 and new information
was released in late 2006 and March 2007. The study will continue for
at least another 10 years. Some individuals have been participating in
the study for more than 14 years.
General Health Status of Agricultural
Previous studies of agricultural health indicated
that farmers are
healthier than the general population in some respects. For example,
they live longer and are less likely to die from heart disease. Farmers
are less likely to die of some cancers such as lung, esophagus, bladder
and colon, probably because farmers are more physically active and less
likely to smoke. For example, in the general population 28% of males
and 23% of females smoke, while among the pesticide applicators
studied, 17% of males and 10% of females smoke.
Data Collection on Study Participants
When the applicators and spouses were enrolled, the
detailed information about their health, their lifestyles (smoking,
drinking, etc.), and medical history through a series of surveys.
Participants were asked details about their pesticide practices,
application methods, use of personal protective equipment, crops and
livestock raised and other safety practices. The surveys also asked
participants about potential environmental exposures. Between Iowa and
North Carolina, a large percentage of applicators and their families
are participating: 83% of eligible private applicators enrolled, 74% of
spouses enrolled and 47% of commercial applicators enrolled.
The study made three general comparisons. First,
comparing applicators and spouses to people in the general population
of Iowa and North Carolina to see if there are differences in the
cancer rates. Second, scientists compared applicators or spouses who
have cancer or other diseases to those who don’t to see if there are
pesticide exposure or other factors that may have contributed to the
disease. Third, the scientists also are comparing applicators or
spouses using a particular pesticide to those not using it to see if
there are any differences in the risk of cancer or other health
problems. These comparisons can be made for types of farm exposures
other than pesticides.
full report link to: http://cropwatch.unl.edu/archives/2007/crop6/ahs_study.htm
REF: Nebraska Crop Watch Newsletter (University of
Nebraska), April 6, 2007
Have A Phone Number for Food Safety Information?
For general food safety questions, call
the FDA Food Safety Hotline at 1-800-723-3366
If the situation
is critical, phone FDA's emergency
number, (301) 443-1240,
staffed 24 hours a day.
However, if your questions involve meat or poultry products
, call the
U.S. Department of Agriculture's hotline at 1-800-535-4555
more on food safety, see http://www.foodsafety.gov
REF: FDA News Digest, 2/12/07
Release: FDA and USDA
Determine Swine Fed Adulterated Product
USDA to Compensate for Depopulation
The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) notified State
authorities that swine fed adulterated product will not be approved to enter the food supply
Based on information currently available, FDA and USDA believe the
likelihood of illness after eating pork from swine fed the adulterated
product would be very low; however, the agencies believe it is prudent
to take this measure.
FDA determined that a shipment of rice protein
imported from China
was contaminated with melamine and melamine-related compounds. The
product was imported during the week of April 2, 2007 by Wilbur-Ellis,
an importer and distributor of agricultural products. The rice protein
was used in the production of pet food and a byproduct was used to
produce animal feed.
The contaminants in question include melamine and
compounds, including cyanuric acid, the combination of which is a
potential source of concern in relation to human and animal health.
Scientific research indicates that melamine alone, at detected levels,
is not a human health concern. However, no scientific data exist to
ascertain the effects of combining melamine and melamine-related
compounds. Therefore, a determination has not yet been made regarding
the safety of the product.
Because the animal feed in question was
adulterated, USDA cannot
rule out the possibility that food produced from animals fed this
product could also be adulterated. Therefore, USDA cannot place the
mark of inspection on food produced from these animals.
USDA is offering to compensate producers who
euthanize swine that
were fed the adulterated product. USDA is authorized to use Section 32
funds to restore farmers’ purchasing power. USDA is also offering the
expertise and assistance of Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
(APHIS) personnel in carrying out depopulation activities, to ensure
animals are euthanized and disposed of in accordance with Federal and
FDA and FSIS are coordinating with State
authorities in eight states
where the adulterated feed is known to have been purchased. Eight pork
producers in the states of California, Kansas, North Carolina, New
York, Oklahoma, South Carolina and Utah are known to have purchased the
feed. These combined operations involve approximately 6,000 hogs. All
of the animals are currently being held under state quarantines in CA,
NC, NY and SC. In KS, OK and UT producers agreed to hold the animals
until further notice. Authorities are also in contact with a feed mill
in Missouri that might have received adulterated feed.
Pork and pork products derived from animals that
were fed the
adulterated product will also be destroyed. In CA and UT, pork from
federally inspected plants is being held under FSIS direction. In SC, a
state inspected plant is voluntarily holding swine that were fed the
adulterated product. FSIS, FDA and state authorities are in the process
of determining whether any meat from animals that were fed the
adulterated product has entered commerce. If that has occurred, FSIS
will work with states and industry to take the appropriate action.
FDA and FSIS are continuing the effort to trace
feed. If additional producers are identified who fed the adulterated
product to animals, they will also be offered compensation by USDA for
depopulation and disposal.
website, April 26, 2007
ASPCA Dispels Common
Misconceptions Related to Poisons
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty
to Animals reminds veterinarians and pet owners of the more common
misconceptions related to poisons. The ASPCA reports the following:
eaten poinsettias are deadly.
Poinsettia ingestions typically induce only mild to moderate irritation
in the gastrointestinal tract of pets. Keeping the plant out of reach
to avoid stomach upset is a good idea, but pet owners don't need to
banish poinsettias from their homes for fear of a fatal exposure.
WetJets contain an ingredient similar to antifreeze, and causes liver
failure in dogs.
When used according to label directions, the ingredients in Swiffer
WetJets are safe around pets and will not cause liver damage at product
concentrations. Despite a similar-sounding name, the propylene glycol
n-butyl ether or propylene glycol n-propyl ether found in Swiffer
differs substantially from ethylene glycol, the potentially toxic
ingredient present in most antifreeze products, which can cause kidney,
not liver, failure.
Salt can be
used to induce vomiting.
It was once believed that giving pets a spoonful of salt was an
effective means of making them regurgitate potentially harmful
substances. However, salt is not a reliable emetic and could actually
lead to a sodium ion poisoning if too much were ingested.
cause dogs to lose the use of their hind limbs.
Dogs that consume roughly one gram of macadamia nuts or more per pound
of body weight can develop lethargy, vomit, or suffer from an increased
body temperature, progressing to loss of coordination, tremors, and
profound weakness primarily in the hind limbs. So far, dogs are the
only species known to experience these effects. Usually these clinical
effects resolve completely in 24 to 48 hours with minimal management.
treats are deadly to dogs, causing intestinal blockage when swallowed.
Although the safety of Greenies remains controversial, the ASPCA
reported that Greenies do not pose a higher risk for gastrointestinal
tract obstruction compared with other edible chew products.
poisonous if ingested.
United States pennies minted after 1982 contain 99.2% zinc (and 0.8%
copper) by weight. Although an essential trace nutrient, zinc is a
concern because ingestions of substantial amounts can cause damage to
the kidneys, liver, red blood cells, and gastrointestinal tract. As a
result of the high zinc content, pennies minted after 1982 are
considered to be potentially toxic if swallowed.
To learn more, visit the ASPCA's Animal Poison Control center online at
REF: JAVMA, March 1, 2007.
Mercury in Fish and
What You Need
to Know About Mercury in Fish and Shellfish is a free brochure
that offers advice to women who might become pregnant, women who are
pregnant, nursing mothers and young children about what fish to avoid
due to high mercury content. Developed by the Food and Drug
Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency, the brochure
offers guidance on the nutritional benefits of fish and shellfish.
For more information, visit: www.cfsan.fda.gov
REF: Nutrition Perspectives, Jan/Feb 2007.
EPA's new Web
fact sheet on outdoor residential misting systems, also known as
mosquito misting systems, will help consumers decide if residential
pesticide misting systems are appropriate for their home, understand
safety precautions for using outdoor misting systems, find related
information on a variety of methods for mosquito control, and
understand the role of the EPA and state agencies in regulating
misters. EPA developed this fact sheet because an increasing
number of households have purchased timed-release outdoor residential
misting systems to control mosquitoes and other insects around the
home. However, advertisers, the media, and other sources
sometimes provide information about misting systems that is difficult
to understand or might conflict with other information. The new
Web page describes outdoor residential misting systems and discusses
the pesticides used in the systems, their safety and effectiveness, and
the regulatory authority of EPA and state governments regarding misting
systems. The Outdoor Residential Misting Systems fact sheet is
available on EPA's Web site at: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/misting_systems.htm
REF: Chemically Speaking, April 2007
State Health Officer Advises Consumers Not
to Eat Some Shellfish and Viscera of Sardines, Anchovies, and Crab from
5 Southern California Counties
Consumers should not
eat sport-harvested species of bivalve (two-shelled) shellfish,
sardines and anchovies or the organs, or viscera, of sport-harvested or
commercially sold lobster or crab taken from the coast of Los Angeles, Orange, San Luis Obispo, Santa
Barbara and Ventura
counties because they may be contaminated
with domoic acid, a naturally occurring toxin that can cause human
illness, State Public Health Officer Dr. Mark Horton warned. Dogs, cats, birds and other household pets
are also susceptible to domoic acid poisoning and should not be fed
The California Department of Health Services
(CDHS) has detected elevated levels of domoic acid in sardines and
mussels from the coast in these five counties. Other seafood, including
bivalve shellfish such as oysters, clams and scallops and the viscera
of anchovies, crab and lobster, have not been tested, but could also
contain dangerous levels of toxin. Crab viscera is commonly known as
"crab butter" and lobster viscera is called "tomally."
This advisory is in addition to the current
quarantine on the sport-harvesting of mussels along the entire
California coastline that took effect April 20.
Domoic acid was first identified in 1991 in
samples of mussels, razor clams and other seafood at several locations
along the Pacific Coast, including California. No known cases of human
poisoning from this toxin are known to have occurred in California.
CDHS includes testing of domoic acid and other marine toxins in its
biotoxin monitoring program.
Symptoms of domoic acid poisoning include
vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, headache, disorientation,
seizures and loss of short-term memory. Severe cases may be fatal or
result in permanent short-term memory. Older individuals and
individuals with impaired kidney function are more vulnerable to the
toxic effects of domoic acid.
This warning does not apply to commercially
caught bivalve shellfish, which are sold by certified harvesters and
dealers and subject to frequent mandatory testing. State law prohibits
the sale or offering for sale for human consumption of any clams,
mussels, scallops or oysters, except by state-certified commercial
shellfish harvesters or dealers. Shellfish sold by certified harvesters
and dealers are subject to frequent mandatory testing.
For more information, consumers can call CDHS’ toll-free "Shellfish
Information Line," which includes updates on shellfish biotoxins and
quarantines, at 1-800-553-4133.
Department of Health Services
Press Release, April 27, 2007.
Early Onset of Warm
Weather Triggers an Early West Nile Virus Season
Unusually high temperatures throughout California in
March triggered an earlier than normal start to the West Nile virus
(WNV) season, State Public Health Officer Dr. Mark Horton warned today.
"Mosquitoes that carry West Nile virus are
breeding earlier this year due to warm weather," Horton said. "While no
predictions can be made about the severity of West Nile virus this
season, Californians should begin taking precautions to protect
themselves from mosquito bites by eliminating all sources of standing
water that can support mosquito breeding and applying insect repellent
WNV was first detected in California five years
ago. So far this year, no human cases of WNV have been identified.
However, the virus has been detected in mosquito pools, sentinel
chickens or horses in eight counties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange,
Riverside, Santa Clara, San Diego, Sonoma and Stanislaus.
In 2006, a total of 292 human WNV infections,
including seven deaths, were reported in the 54 counties that detected
WNV activity. Of the 58 horses that also tested positive for WNV, 24
died or were euthanized. WNV is transmitted to humans and animals
through a mosquito bite. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on
Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has invested a
total of $15 million over the last two years to enhance mosquito
control efforts. This funding has supplemented the resources of
existing mosquito control programs statewide and expanded efforts in
areas of the state not covered to combat WNV. This investment in
equipment and other products to control mosquitoes continues to benefit
mosquito control efforts this year.
Horton reminded Californians of three simple ways to protect
themselves from WNV:
- DEET – Apply inspect repellent containing DEET, picaradin or oil
of lemon eucalyptus according to label instructions. Repellents keep
the mosquitoes from biting you. DEET can be used safely on infants and
children 2 months of age and older.
- DAWN AND DUSK – Mosquitoes that carry WNV bite in the early
morning and evening so it is important to wear repellent at this time.
Make sure that your doors and windows have tight-fitting screens to
keep out mosquitoes. Repair or replace screens with tears or holes.
- DRAIN – Mosquitoes lay their eggs on standing water. Eliminate
all sources of standing water on your property, including flower pots,
old car tires, rain gutters and pet bowls. If you have a pond, use
mosquito fish or commercially available products to eliminate mosquito
California’s WNV Web site – www.westnile.ca.gov
– has been updated to make it easier for the public to find the latest
information on WNV activity in the state. In addition to reporting all
dead birds, Californians are encouraged to report dead tree squirrels,
three types of which have tested positive for WNV in California: the
Western Gray, Fox and Eastern Gray. The Web site also includes
information on the most common birds found with WNV. Dead birds and
squirrels can be reported on the Web site or by calling (877) 968-2473.
Department of Health Services Press Release, April 23, 2007.
Avoiding RWIS While Swimming
With spring and summer months and an increase in
outdoor activities right around the corner, it is time to start
thinking about swimming safety issues. Most people think first of
concerns over children drowning in neighborhood pools or lakes, but
there are also risks of illness from swimming in public areas.
Illnesses caused by E. coli and other pathogens are often
associated with foods such as undercooked meats and raw vegetables, but
can also be spread by ingesting water that is contaminated with them.
Illnesses caused by pathogen transmission in swimming pools are often
referred to as recreational water
illnesses, or RWIs, and become
a concern especially for children
and families who swim in public pools or lakes in the summer.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) defines RWIs as illnesses
spread by swallowing, breathing, or
contacting contaminated water in swimming pools, hot tubs, lakes,
rivers, or oceans. These illnesses can cause diarrheal,
skin, ear, and neurologic infections, although the most commonly
reported RWI symptom is diarrhea. Since 1978, the CDC has collected
information on RWI outbreaks in the United States. The most common
causes of RWI outbreaks are Cryptosporidium,
Giardia, Shigella, and Norovirus, pathogens usually
linked to contaminated foods.
The CDC has found that most outbreaks of diarrhea
associated with swimming pools and lakes occur during the summer
months, and that cases have increased since 1985. The 10 or so
diarrheal illness outbreaks linked to public swimming pools each year
are thought to be just the tip of the iceberg. Among the pathogens of
concern, E. coli is sensitive to chlorine, and thus more
often causes illness in lakes or other swimming areas where chlorine is
not added. Cryptosporidium, however, is resistant to chlorine
and can survive in chlorinated swimming pools. When young children in
diapers, especially those with diarrheal illness, swim in public areas,
these pathogens can contaminate the water and spread to others who
accidentally swallow swimming water.
As part of the ongoing research about RWIs, the
CDC has interviewed parents about the safety risks of swimming, and has
found that most are not aware that swimming can cause illness through
ingestion of contaminated water. Many parents indicated that they
believe a pool is safe and clean when they smell chlorine at around the
pool area. Some pathogens, however, can live for hours or even days in
chlorinated pools, even those that are well-maintained. Because
swimming is a very popular warm-weather activity especially for
children, parents indicated in the interviews that they would like to
have better education and more information about RWIs and how they are
The CDC has responded by providing detailed
information about swimming risks and illness prevention, targeted
towards the general public and available at the CDC website. These
recommendations to promote healthy swimming are outlined as "PLEAs" for
both swimmers and parents of young children.
The "PLEAs" for swimmers are:
- Please don't swim when you have diarrhea.
- Please don't swallow the pool water, and avoid getting water in
- Please practice good hygiene.
The three "PLEAs" for parents are:
- Please take your kids on bathroom
breaks or check diapers often.
- Please change diapers in a bathroom
and not at poolside.
- Please wash your child
thoroughly with soap and water before
The CDC encourages parents to use these
guidelines and to consider
RWIs as much a part of safe swimming education as the prevention of
drowning and swimming-related injuries. RWI illness prevention becomes
most important now, as the summer months and swimming weather draw near.
State University Cooperative Extension Safefood News
2007, Vol 11 (3).
Public Access to be Closed Effective May 15th
Due to Lack of Funding
The members of
the Food Animal Residue Avoidance
program reluctantly announce the suspension all interactive
as of the end of business on Tuesday, May 15, 2007, due to lack of
continued federal funding. FARAD has been funded through the USDA since
1982 on a yearly basis. The FARAD databases and staff will be
maintained temporarily in the hope that stable and long term funding
is obtained. Expert mediated extra label veterinary drug use advice
will be discontinued and the toll-free number (1-888-US-FARAD) and web
access will be unavailable.
In the event of
a major food or feed contamination incident (like the melamine
incident), FARAD will attempt to assist state and federal veterinarians
with contamination mitigation if time and staffing allow.
has worked behind the scenes duriung the "pet food crisis" to determine
the possibility of residues in the food animals (swine and chickens)
which were also exposed to melamine.)
REF: FARAD website
FDA Removes Hydrogen Peroxide from
the List of Low Regulatory Priority Aquaculture Drugs
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is
announcing today the removal of hydrogen peroxide from the list of Low
Regulatory Priority Aquaculture Drugs identified in the Program Policy
and Procedures Manual Guide 1240.4200 http://www.fda.gov/cvm/Documents/LRPDrugs.pdf.
FDA, under enforcement discretion, had previously
not objected to the use of hydrogen peroxide to control fungi on all
species and life stages of fish, including eggs; however, hydrogen
peroxide is now the subject of an FDA-approved new animal drug
application with the trade name 35%PEROX-AID http://www.fda.gov/cvm/CVM_Updates/perox-aid.htm.
Therefore, the only approved hydrogen peroxide product that can be used
in fish production is 35%PEROX-AID. There is no longer any
enforcement discretion for the use of hydrogen peroxide to control
fungi on all species and life stages of fish, including eggs, or for
its use to treat any other fish disease.
Aquaculture producers raising fish for human food
consumption should not use drug compounds other than the approved
product because it can be unsafe for your fish. In addition, the
effectiveness of unapproved drug compounds is questionable.
The FDA is also reminding food animal producers to
read veterinary drug labels carefully and follow label directions to
help avoid causing illegal residues in their products.
REF: FDA website, May 2,
Clarifies Extra-label Use of Medicated Feed in Minor Species
FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) is
clarifying the Compliance Policy Guide (CPG) section 615.115 entitled,
"Extra-Label Use of Medicated Feeds for Minor Species'' in order to
ensure proper use of medicated feed in minor species. CVM has
received a number of inquiries relative to the proper use of the
CPG. The inquiries have revealed some common points of confusion
regarding the appropriate interpretation of the principles specified in
The following conditions, in addition to all other stipulations in
the CPG, have to be satisfied in order to ensure proper use of
medicated feed in minor species:
Veterinarian involvement. Any extra-label use
of medicated feed in minor species per this CPG requires involvement of
a licensed veterinarian within the confines of a valid
veterinarian-client-patient relationship. The veterinarian is expected
to make a written recommendation for the extra-label use of medicated
feed based on a recent diagnosis of an active disease for which no
other drug treatment is approved.
Treatment only use. Medicated feed may be
considered for treatment only when the health of animals is threatened
and suffering or death would result from failure to treat the affected
No production use. Extra-label use of medicated
feed for production purposes is not allowed.
No feed reformulation or relabeling. Once
manufactured and labeled as approved for use in a major species, the
feed cannot be either reformulated to meet nutritional needs of the
intended minor species or relabeled as such.
Comments on the CPG may be submitted any time to: FDA's Dockets
Management Branch (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers
Lane, Room 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. Comments should be identified
with the full title of the CPG and Docket number 99D-2638.
website, May 4, 2007.
!! CLICK ON THE PIG !!